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Cheatsheet for Python
# import is used to make specialty functions available
# These are called modules
import random
import sys
import os
# Hello world is just one line of code
# print() outputs data to the screen
print("Hello World")
#This also works
print "Another way to print Hello World"
'''
This is a multi-line comment
'''
# A variable is a place to store values
# Its name is like a label for that value
name = "Derek"
print(name)
# A variable name can contain letters, numbers, or _
# but can't start with a number
# There are 5 data types Numbers, Strings, List, Tuple, Dictionary
# You can store any of them in the same variable
name = 15
print(name)
# A string is a string of characters surrounded by " or '
# If you must use a " or ' between the same quote escape it with \
quote = "\"Always remember your unique,"
# A multi-line quote
multi_line_quote = ''' just
like everyone else" '''
print(quote + multi_line_quote)
# To embed a string in output use %s
print("%s %s %s" % ('I like the quote', quote, multi_line_quote))
print('\n' * 5)
# LISTS -------------
# A list allows you to create a list of values and manipulate them
# Each value has an index with the first one starting at 0
grocery_list = ['Juice', 'Tomatoes', 'Potatoes', 'Bananas']
print('The first item is', grocery_list[0])
# You can change the value stored in a list box
grocery_list[0] = "Green Juice"
print(grocery_list)
# You can get a subset of the list with [min:up to but not including max]
print(grocery_list[1:3])
# You can put any data type in a a list including a list
other_events = ['Wash Car', 'Pick up Kids', 'Cash Check']
to_do_list = [other_events, grocery_list]
print(to_do_list)
# Get the second item in the second list (Boxes inside of boxes)
print(to_do_list[1][1])
# You add values using append
grocery_list.append('onions')
print(to_do_list)
# Sorts items in list
grocery_list.sort()
# Reverse sort items in list
grocery_list.reverse()
# del deletes an item at specified index
del grocery_list[4]
print(to_do_list)
# We can combine lists with a +
to_do_list = other_events + grocery_list
print(to_do_list)
# Get length of list
print(len(to_do_list))
# Get the max item in list
print(max(to_do_list))
# TUPLES -------------
# Values in a tuple can't change like lists
pi_tuple = (3, 1, 4, 1, 5, 9)
# Convert tuple into a list
new_tuple = list(pi_tuple)
# Convert a list into a tuple
# new_list = tuple(grocery_list)
# tuples also have len(tuple), min(tuple) and max(tuple)
# DICTIONARY or MAP -------------
# Made up of values with a unique key for each value
# Similar to lists, but you can't join dicts with a +
super_villains = {'Fiddler' : 'Isaac Bowin',
'Captain Cold' : 'Leonard Snart',
'Weather Wizard' : 'Mark Mardon',
'Mirror Master' : 'Sam Scudder',
'Pied Piper' : 'Thomas Peterson'}
print(super_villains['Captain Cold'])
# Delete an entry
del super_villains['Fiddler']
print(super_villains)
# Replace a value
super_villains['Pied Piper'] = 'Hartley Rathaway'
# Print the number of items in the dictionary
print(len(super_villains))
# CONDITIONALS -------------
# The if, else and elif statements are used to perform different
# actions based off of conditions
# Comparison Operators : ==, !=, >, <, >=, <=
# The if statement will execute code if a condition is met
# White space is used to group blocks of code in Python
# Use the same number of proceeding spaces for blocks of code
# Use an if statement if you want to execute different code regardless
# of whether the condition ws met or not
# If you want to check for multiple conditions use elif
# If the first matches it won't check other conditions that follow
# You can combine conditions with logical operators
# Logical Operators : and, or, not
if ((age >= 1) and (age <= 18)):
print("You get a birthday party")
elif (age == 21) or (age >= 65):
print("You get a birthday party")
elif not(age == 30):
print("You don't get a birthday party")
else:
print("You get a birthday party yeah")
# FOR LOOPS -------------
# Allows you to perform an action a set number of times
# Range performs the action 10 times 0 - 9
for x in range(0, 10):
print(x , ' ', end="")
print('\n')
# You can use for loops to cycle through a list
grocery_list = ['Juice', 'Tomatoes', 'Potatoes', 'Bananas']
for y in grocery_list:
print(y)
# You can also define a list of numbers to cycle through
for x in [2,4,6,8,10]:
print(x)
# You can double up for loops to cycle through lists
num_list =[[1,2,3],[10,20,30],[100,200,300]];
for x in range(0,3):
for y in range(0,3):
print(num_list[x][y])
# WHILE LOOPS -------------
# While loops are used when you don't know ahead of time how many
# times you'll have to loop
random_num = random.randrange(0,100)
while (random_num != 15):
print(random_num)
random_num = random.randrange(0,100)
# An iterator for a while loop is defined before the loop
i = 0;
while (i <= 20):
if(i%2 == 0):
print(i)
elif(i == 9):
# Forces the loop to end all together
break
else:
# Shorthand for i = i + 1
i += 1
# Skips to the next iteration of the loop
continue
i += 1
# FUNCTIONS -------------
# Functions allow you to reuse and write readable code
# Type def (define), function name and parameters it receives
# return is used to return something to the caller of the function
def addNumbers(fNum, sNum):
sumNum = fNum + sNum
return sumNum
print(addNumbers(1, 4))
# Can't get the value of rNum because it was created in a function
# It is said to be out of scope
# print(sumNum)
# If you define a variable outside of the function it works every place
newNum = 0;
def subNumbers(fNum, sNum):
newNum = fNum - sNum
return newNum
print(subNumbers(1, 4))
# USER INPUT -------------
print('What is your name?')
# Stores everything typed up until ENTER
name = sys.stdin.readline()
print('Hello', name)
# STRINGS -------------
# A string is a series of characters surrounded by ' or "
long_string = "I'll catch you if you fall - The Floor"
# Retrieve the first 4 characters
print(long_string[0:4])
# FILE I/O -------------
# Overwrite or create a file for writing
test_file = open("test.txt", "wb")
# Get the file mode used
print(test_file.mode)
# Get the files name
print(test_file.name)
# Write text to a file with a newline
test_file.write(bytes("Write me to the file\n", 'UTF-8'))
# Close the file
test_file.close()
# Opens a file for reading and writing
test_file = open("test.txt", "r+")
# Read text from the file
text_in_file = test_file.read()
print(text_in_file)
# Delete the file
os.remove("test.txt")
import time
import random
import datetime
import telepot
import cricket_api
"""
After **inserting token** in the source code, run it:
```
$ python2.7 diceyclock.py
```
[Here is a tutorial](http://www.instructables.com/id/Set-up-Telegram-Bot-on-Raspberry-Pi/)
teaching you how to setup a bot on Raspberry Pi. This simple bot does nothing
but accepts two commands:
- `/roll` - reply with a random integer between 1 and 6, like rolling a dice.
- `/time` - reply with the current time, like a clock.
"""
def handle(msg):
chat_id = msg['chat']['id']
command = msg['text']
print 'Got command: %s' % command
if command == 'roll':
bot.sendMessage(chat_id, random.randint(1,6))
elif command == 'time':
bot.sendMessage(chat_id, str(datetime.datetime.now()))
elif command == 'score':
bot.sendMessage(chat_id, "Hang on! Fetching scores")
scores = cricket_api.get_scores()
print scores
for score in scores:
bot.sendMessage(chat_id, str(score))
else:
bot.sendMessage(chat_id, "I'm not smart enough to understand what you said :(")
bot = telepot.Bot('YOUR_ACCESS_TOKEN_HERE')
bot.message_loop(handle)
print 'I am listening ...'
while 1:
time.sleep(10)
# import is used to make specialty functions available
# These are called modules
import random
import sys
import os
# Hello world is just one line of code
# print() outputs data to the screen
print("Hello World")
'''
This is a multi-line comment
'''
# A variable is a place to store values
# Its name is like a label for that value
name = "Derek"
print(name)
# A variable name can contain letters, numbers, or _
# but can't start with a number
# There are 5 data types Numbers, Strings, List, Tuple, Dictionary
# You can store any of them in the same variable
name = 15
print(name)
# The arithmetic operators +, -, *, /, %, **, //
# ** Exponential calculation
# // Floor Division
print("5 + 2 =", 5+2)
print("5 - 2 =", 5-2)
print("5 * 2 =", 5*2)
print("5 / 2 =", 5/2)
print("5 % 2 =", 5%2)
print("5 ** 2 =", 5**2)
print("5 // 2 =", 5//2)
# Order of Operation states * and / is performed before + and -
print("1 + 2 - 3 * 2 =", 1 + 2 - 3 * 2)
print("(1 + 2 - 3) * 2 =", (1 + 2 - 3) * 2)
# A string is a string of characters surrounded by " or '
# If you must use a " or ' between the same quote escape it with \
quote = "\"Always remember your unique,"
# A multi-line quote
multi_line_quote = ''' just
like everyone else" '''
print(quote + multi_line_quote)
# To embed a string in output use %s
print("%s %s %s" % ('I like the quote', quote, multi_line_quote))
# To keep from printing newlines use end=""
print("I don't like ",end="")
print("newlines")
# You can print a string multiple times with *
print('\n' * 5)
# LISTS -------------
# A list allows you to create a list of values and manipulate them
# Each value has an index with the first one starting at 0
grocery_list = ['Juice', 'Tomatoes', 'Potatoes', 'Bananas']
print('The first item is', grocery_list[1])
# You can change the value stored in a list box
grocery_list[0] = "Green Juice"
print(grocery_list)
# You can get a subset of the list with [min:up to but not including max]
print(grocery_list[1:3])
# You can put any data type in a a list including a list
other_events = ['Wash Car', 'Pick up Kids', 'Cash Check']
to_do_list = [other_events, grocery_list]
print(to_do_list)
# Get the second item in the second list (Boxes inside of boxes)
print(to_do_list[1][1])
# You add values using append
grocery_list.append('onions')
print(to_do_list)
# Insert item at given index
grocery_list.insert(1, "Pickle")
# Remove item from list
grocery_list.remove("Pickle")
# Sorts items in list
grocery_list.sort()
# Reverse sort items in list
grocery_list.reverse()
# del deletes an item at specified index
del grocery_list[4]
print(to_do_list)
# We can combine lists with a +
to_do_list = other_events + grocery_list
print(to_do_list)
# Get length of list
print(len(to_do_list))
# Get the max item in list
print(max(to_do_list))
# Get the minimum item in list
print(min(to_do_list))
# TUPLES -------------
# Values in a tuple can't change like lists
pi_tuple = (3, 1, 4, 1, 5, 9)
# Convert tuple into a list
new_tuple = list(pi_tuple)
# Convert a list into a tuple
# new_list = tuple(grocery_list)
# tuples also have len(tuple), min(tuple) and max(tuple)
# DICTIONARY or MAP -------------
# Made up of values with a unique key for each value
# Similar to lists, but you can't join dicts with a +
super_villains = {'Fiddler' : 'Isaac Bowin',
'Captain Cold' : 'Leonard Snart',
'Weather Wizard' : 'Mark Mardon',
'Mirror Master' : 'Sam Scudder',
'Pied Piper' : 'Thomas Peterson'}
print(super_villains['Captain Cold'])
# Delete an entry
del super_villains['Fiddler']
print(super_villains)
# Replace a value
super_villains['Pied Piper'] = 'Hartley Rathaway'
# Print the number of items in the dictionary
print(len(super_villains))
# Get the value for the passed key
print(super_villains.get("Pied Piper"))
# Get a list of dictionary keys
print(super_villains.keys())
# Get a list of dictionary values
print(super_villains.values())
# CONDITIONALS -------------
# The if, else and elif statements are used to perform different
# actions based off of conditions
# Comparison Operators : ==, !=, >, <, >=, <=
# The if statement will execute code if a condition is met
# White space is used to group blocks of code in Python
# Use the same number of proceeding spaces for blocks of code
age = 30
if age > 16 :
print('You are old enough to drive')
# Use an if statement if you want to execute different code regardless
# of whether the condition ws met or not
if age > 16 :
print('You are old enough to drive')
else :
print('You are not old enough to drive')
# If you want to check for multiple conditions use elif
# If the first matches it won't check other conditions that follow
if age >= 21 :
print('You are old enough to drive a tractor trailer')
elif age >= 16:
print('You are old enough to drive a car')
else :
print('You are not old enough to drive')
# You can combine conditions with logical operators
# Logical Operators : and, or, not
if ((age >= 1) and (age <= 18)):
print("You get a birthday party")
elif (age == 21) or (age >= 65):
print("You get a birthday party")
elif not(age == 30):
print("You don't get a birthday party")
else:
print("You get a birthday party yeah")
# FOR LOOPS -------------
# Allows you to perform an action a set number of times
# Range performs the action 10 times 0 - 9
for x in range(0, 10):
print(x , ' ', end="")
print('\n')
# You can use for loops to cycle through a list
grocery_list = ['Juice', 'Tomatoes', 'Potatoes', 'Bananas']
for y in grocery_list:
print(y)
# You can also define a list of numbers to cycle through
for x in [2,4,6,8,10]:
print(x)
# You can double up for loops to cycle through lists
num_list =[[1,2,3],[10,20,30],[100,200,300]];
for x in range(0,3):
for y in range(0,3):
print(num_list[x][y])
# WHILE LOOPS -------------
# While loops are used when you don't know ahead of time how many
# times you'll have to loop
random_num = random.randrange(0,100)
while (random_num != 15):
print(random_num)
random_num = random.randrange(0,100)
# An iterator for a while loop is defined before the loop
i = 0;
while (i <= 20):
if(i%2 == 0):
print(i)
elif(i == 9):
# Forces the loop to end all together
break
else:
# Shorthand for i = i + 1
i += 1
# Skips to the next iteration of the loop
continue
i += 1
# FUNCTIONS -------------
# Functions allow you to reuse and write readable code
# Type def (define), function name and parameters it receives
# return is used to return something to the caller of the function
def addNumbers(fNum, sNum):
sumNum = fNum + sNum
return sumNum
print(addNumbers(1, 4))
# Can't get the value of rNum because it was created in a function
# It is said to be out of scope
# print(sumNum)
# If you define a variable outside of the function it works every place
newNum = 0;
def subNumbers(fNum, sNum):
newNum = fNum - sNum
return newNum
print(subNumbers(1, 4))
# USER INPUT -------------
print('What is your name?')
# Stores everything typed up until ENTER
name = sys.stdin.readline()
print('Hello', name)
# STRINGS -------------
# A string is a series of characters surrounded by ' or "
long_string = "I'll catch you if you fall - The Floor"
# Retrieve the first 4 characters
print(long_string[0:4])
# Get the last 5 characters
print(long_string[-5:])
# Everything up to the last 5 characters
print(long_string[:-5])
# Concatenate part of a string to another
print(long_string[:4] + " be there")
# String formatting
print("%c is my %s letter and my number %d number is %.5f" % ('X', 'favorite', 1, .14))
# Capitalizes the first letter
print(long_string.capitalize())
# Returns the index of the start of the string
# case sensitive
print(long_string.find("Floor"))
# Returns true if all characters are letters ' isn't a letter
print(long_string.isalpha())
# Returns true if all characters are numbers
print(long_string.isalnum())
# Returns the string length
print(len(long_string))
# Replace the first word with the second (Add a number to replace more)
print(long_string.replace("Floor", "Ground"))
# Remove white space from front and end
print(long_string.strip())
# Split a string into a list based on the delimiter you provide
quote_list = long_string.split(" ")
print(quote_list)
# FILE I/O -------------
# Overwrite or create a file for writing
test_file = open("test.txt", "wb")
# Get the file mode used
print(test_file.mode)
# Get the files name
print(test_file.name)
# Write text to a file with a newline
test_file.write(bytes("Write me to the file\n", 'UTF-8'))
# Close the file
test_file.close()
# Opens a file for reading and writing
test_file = open("test.txt", "r+")
# Read text from the file
text_in_file = test_file.read()
print(text_in_file)
# Delete the file
os.remove("test.txt")
# CLASSES AND OBJECTS -------------
# The concept of OOP allows us to model real world things using code
# Every object has attributes (color, height, weight) which are object variables
# Every object has abilities (walk, talk, eat) which are object functions
class Animal:
# None signifies the lack of a value
# You can make a variable private by starting it with __
__name = None
__height = None
__weight = None
__sound = None
# The constructor is called to set up or initialize an object
# self allows an object to refer to itself inside of the class
def __init__(self, name, height, weight, sound):
self.__name = name
self.__height = height
self.__weight = weight
self.__sound = sound
def set_name(self, name):
self.__name = name
def set_height(self, height):
self.__height = height
def set_weight(self, height):
self.__height = height
def set_sound(self, sound):
self.__sound = sound
def get_name(self):
return self.__name
def get_height(self):
return str(self.__height)
def get_weight(self):
return str(self.__weight)
def get_sound(self):
return self.__sound
def get_type(self):
print("Animal")
def toString(self):
return "{} is {} cm tall and {} kilograms and says {}".format(self.__name, self.__height, self.__weight, self.__sound)
# How to create a Animal object
cat = Animal('Whiskers', 33, 10, 'Meow')
print(cat.toString())
# You can't access this value directly because it is private
#print(cat.__name)
# INHERITANCE -------------
# You can inherit all of the variables and methods from another class
class Dog(Animal):
__owner = None
def __init__(self, name, height, weight, sound, owner):
self.__owner = owner
self.__animal_type = None
# How to call the super class constructor
super(Dog, self).__init__(name, height, weight, sound)
def set_owner(self, owner):
self.__owner = owner
def get_owner(self):
return self.__owner
def get_type(self):
print ("Dog")
# We can overwrite functions in the super class
def toString(self):
return "{} is {} cm tall and {} kilograms and says {}. His owner is {}".format(self.get_name(), self.get_height(), self.get_weight(), self.get_sound(), self.__owner)
# You don't have to require attributes to be sent
# This allows for method overloading
def multiple_sounds(self, how_many=None):
if how_many is None:
print(self.get_sound)
else:
print(self.get_sound() * how_many)
spot = Dog("Spot", 53, 27, "Ruff", "Derek")
print(spot.toString())
# Polymorphism allows use to refer to objects as their super class
# and the correct functions are called automatically
class AnimalTesting:
def get_type(self, animal):
animal.get_type()
test_animals = AnimalTesting()
test_animals.get_type(cat)
test_animals.get_type(spot)
spot.multiple_sounds(4)
#importing the python requests library
import requests
def get_scores():
url = "https://cricscore-api.appspot.com/csa"
#Creatin a GET request
response = requests.get(url)
#Check if the response is okay => Status code 200
if response.status_code == 200:
# print "Here's what we've recieved"
# print response.text
#parsing the json response to a Python Object
matches_data = response.json()
scores = []
for match in matches_data:
match_id = match["id"]
#Create one more request to get the score
req_url = url + "?id=" + str(match_id)
score_data = requests.get(req_url).json()
#print "Here's the score data for the match \n", score_data
print "="*20
scores.append(score_data[0]["de"])
return scores
return "Request to the api failed"
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