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Stepper 1 degree/step PWM smoother cooler

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step1a.pde
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//requires additional hardware 1 res 1 cap x4
 
// This Arduino example demonstrates bidirectional operation of a
// 28BYJ-48, which is readily available on eBay for $4.25 inc shipping,
// using a ULN2003 interface board to drive the stepper. The 28BYJ-48
// motor is a 4-phase, 8-beat motor, geared down by a factor of 64. One
// bipolar winding is on motor pins 1,3 and the other on motor pins 2,4.
// Refer to the manufacturer's documentation of Changzhou Fulling
// Motor Co., Ltd., among others. The step angle is 5.625/64 and the
// operating Frequency is 100pps. Current draw is 92mA.
// Vin w USB power is 4.5v too slow for testing use 5v pin.
// To save space to upload to forum:
 
#include <Narcoleptic.h>
#define dw digitalWrite
#define dm delayMicroseconds
#define aw analogWrite
#define de delay
#define P(s) Serial.print(s);
#define P32 Serial.write(32);
#define P13 Serial.write(10);
//2.1v to hold weakly
//2.5v to turn 3v strong
#define VOLT 1 //required 1v for topspeed lowp slow()
#define AW11 analogWrite(mp1a,int(VOLT*256/5));
#define AW21 analogWrite(mp2a,int(VOLT*256/5));
#define AW31 analogWrite(mp3a,int(VOLT*256/5));
#define AW41 analogWrite(mp4a,int(VOLT*256/5));
#define AW10 analogWrite(mp1a,0);
#define AW20 analogWrite(mp2a,0);
#define AW30 analogWrite(mp3a,0);
#define AW40 analogWrite(mp4a,0);
#define fastout {pinMode(mp1,OUTPUT);pinMode(mp2,OUTPUT);pinMode(mp3,OUTPUT);pinMode(mp4,OUTPUT);}
#define fastin {pinMode(mp1,INPUT );pinMode(mp2,INPUT );pinMode(mp3,INPUT );pinMode(mp4,INPUT );}
 
const int mp1 = 2; // Blue - 28BYJ48 pin 1
const int mp2 = 3; // Pink - 28BYJ48 pin 2
const int mp3 = 4; // Yellow - 28BYJ48 pin 3
const int mp4 = 5; // Orange - 28BYJ48 pin 4
// Red - 28BYJ48 pin 5 VCC
const int mp1a = 9;
const int mp2a = 10;
const int mp3a = 11;
const int mp4a = 13; // 13 is not PWM should use 6 todo later
 
long motorSpeed=3000; // set stepper speed, period actually, changed long for 1A not used?
int stepnum=0; // current microstep 0-7
float err=0; // running total of movedeg - requested move, always negative in degrpm()
int ar[8]; // assigned in ccw() only, to detect abnormal torque load
int movecnt=0; // running total of steps taken in move(), &=4095 in moveto
long m; // millis()
int step2,d; // nowait
int ii,k;
 
void setup() {
fastout
pinMode(mp1a, OUTPUT);
pinMode(mp2a, OUTPUT);
pinMode(mp3a, OUTPUT);
pinMode(mp4a, OUTPUT);
//Serial.begin(9600);
TCCR1B&=~7; //32khz/30us PWM pins 9-13
TCCR2B&=~7;
TCCR1B|=1;
TCCR2B|=1;
//AW11 AW21 AW31 AW41
//degrpmslowCool4_nowait(0,180*100,1000); //10RPH
//degrpm_nowait(1,180*100,1500);
}
void loop(){
//half step wo 1uf cap 1k res st07()
//10x faster, 10x more deg/step than little motor 64:1 gear
//600 fastest
//1000 stronger
//1600 1/4 duty
//2000 1/4 ideal no vibe but weak
//3200 1/4 slowest wo vibe, smoother=full duty
//5000 slowest full duty
//3000 fastest st03aw (3v critical) same speed as 1500 1/4 duty cuz 4/8 steps
//5000 strong w 1uf caps st03aw
//900 full step st03() is 450 faster than half step
//off();while(1);
//fastout
//degrpm1Arampduty(0,18000,10000); de(500);
//degrpm1Arampduty(1,18000,10000); de(500);
degrpm1Aslow(1,18000,100); de(500);
/*
toppwr(1); de(8);
toppwr(1); de(2); toppwr(1);
for(ii=0;ii<60/2*40/36-3-5;ii++) topspeed_nocap(1);
for(ii=0;ii<5;ii++) {topspeed_nocap(1); de(3*ii);}
off(); de(60);
toppwr(-1); de(8);
toppwr(-1); de(2); toppwr(-1);
for(ii=0;ii<60/2*40/36-3-5;ii++) topspeed_nocap(-1);
for(ii=0;ii<5;ii++) {topspeed_nocap(-1); de(3*ii);}
off(); de(60);
/*
toppwr(-1); de(7); // 3+2 = 1/5 topspeed
toppwr(-1); de(1);
for(ii=0;ii<60/2*40/36-2;ii++) topspeed_nocap(-1);
//off();
de(60);
toppwr(1); de(7); // 3+2 = 1/5 topspeed
toppwr(1); de(1);
for(ii=0;ii<60/2*40/36-2;ii++) topspeed_nocap(1);
//if(k++%6==3){topspeed(1); topspeed(1);} //60 is not even 400/360 perfect
//off();
de(60);
/**/
//for(ii=0;ii<360/2*40/36;ii++) topspeed(1); stophold(210); de(2000);
//slowpwr();
//lowpmidsp();
//topspeed(1);
//fastin;sinemod();
//off();while(1); //halt
}
void unramp(boolean bcw, long deg100, int rpm100, int percslow){
//to prevent bouncing at end of move with DSLR camera mounted on shaft directly
degrpm8(bcw,deg100*(100-percslow*2)/100,rpm100); //limited to 17.00 800 12v?
degrpm8(bcw,deg100*percslow/100,400);
degrpm8(bcw,deg100*percslow/100,100);
}
void unramp1(boolean bcw, long deg100, int rpm100, int percslow){
//to prevent bouncing at end of move with DSLR camera mounted on shaft directly
//faster 20rpm for 8v, 30rpm for 12v
degrpm1(bcw,deg100*percslow/100,1500); //change for 12v
degrpm1(bcw,deg100*(100-percslow*3)/100,rpm100);
degrpm1(bcw,deg100*percslow/100,400);
degrpm1(bcw,deg100*percslow/100,100);
//off for 12v
}
const float STEPERDEG=float(64)*64/360;
//call like this moveto(90.0*STEPERDEG);
//code decides which direction to move is shortest
void moveto(int steppos){
steppos&=4095;
movecnt&=4095; //this will not happen in move() can be >4096
int bcw=0;
if(steppos>movecnt)bcw=1;
if(abs(steppos-movecnt)>2048)bcw=!bcw;
movetodir(bcw,steppos);
}
void movetodir(boolean bcw, int steppos){
//absolute position you decide direction
steppos&=4095;
movecnt&=4095; //this will not happen in move() can be >4096 or <0
while(movecnt!=steppos) {
move(bcw);
movecnt&=4095;
}
//can turn off()
}
void midspeedcool_12v(boolean bcw, long steps){
//use const STEPERDEG
//no reason to use this with 5-8v
//perfect for running motor all day long
//delay 1200us already in move, dm(1200) is 50% duty cycle
//dm(400) is strong, 1200 is like 5v torque?
//<5000 smoother ok with 12v only but Cool4 is better
//change 1200 to fit your desired speed
for(long i=0;i<steps;i++){move(bcw); off(); dm(500);}
}
void ramp(boolean bcw, int rpm100) {
//past 1200 it ramps fast in cwss() also, thats bad, so dont do it
for(int i=50;i<1200;i+=100) //1200 or rpm100 if <1200, can change step 100
degrpmEZ(bcw,900,i); //<9.00deg ignores speed
revRestart(bcw,2,rpm100,1); //can change these
}
void revRestart(boolean bcw, long revo, int rpm100, int xinrev) {
int j=0;
//xinrev small only
//restarts ramp in case it gets stuck due to torque load spike
if(xinrev) //>0 restarts, 0 no restart
for(long i=0;i<revo*xinrev;i++){
if(i%xinrev==0){
//Serial.print(j++);
//Serial.write(32);
}
//EZ does not delay(10) at end
degrpmEZ(bcw,36000/xinrev,rpm100); //no max
} //for
else
degrpmEZ(bcw,36000*revo,rpm100); //64 max or use rev()
}
void rev(boolean bcw, long revo) {
long step2=revo*64*8-12; //not exactly right?
int rpm100=500; //can change
if(bcw) cwss(12,rpm100); //ramp up speed
else ccwss(12,rpm100);
for(long i=0;i<step2;i++)
if(bcw)cw(); else ccw();
off();
}
void degrpmslowCool4(boolean bcw, long deg100, int rph100) {
//ccw only, more torque, less current, less heat, most efficient code for maH
//but 4x as jerky
motorSpeed=1500; //1000 or 1500 needed to pull camera 5v
int step2=deg100*64*8/360/100/2; //rounded down
int d=long(351500)*2/rph100; //see stepper.xls was /2 now *2
for(int i=0;i<step2;i++) {
ccw(); ccw(); off();
//can comment out line below sleeps 10ma Aroboto from 5v regulator 40ma Uno
Narcoleptic.
delay(d);
//can hardcode cw() instead
//if(i%16==0)Serial.println(float(i+1)*360/64/8*2);
} //for
off(); //redundant
}
void degrpm_nowait(boolean bcw, long deg100, int rpm100) {
//bcw not used pass to calloften_micro() instead
motorSpeed=1; //0?
step2=deg100*64*64/360/100;
d=long(1463600)/rpm100-20;
m=micros();
ii=0;
}
int calloften_micro(boolean bcw){
//at least every d micros
if(ii>=step2)return(0); //saves time when done
//if(m+d-micros()<200) //can change this
//while(micros()< m+d){}; //wait until time can change //disable this line
long ms=micros();
//if(ms>=m+d*3)Serial.println("Double-step"); //2 is double, 3 is triple
if((ms>=m+d)&&(ii<step2)){ //while would be too soon, ii< redundant
if(bcw)stepnum++; else stepnum--;
//if(bcw)movecnt++; else movecnt--;
st07();
//off();
m+=d; ii++;
} //if
//steps left until destination
return(step2-ii);
}
void degrpmslowCool4_nowait(boolean bcw, long deg100, int rph100) {
//ccw only for now
motorSpeed=1500; //1000 or 1500 needed to pull camera 5v
//int or global below
step2=deg100*64*8/360/100/2;
d=long(351500)*2/rph100;
m=millis();
ii=0;
//can use global d to determine process time in loop()
//Serial.println(step2);Serial.println(d);
}
int calloften(){
//at least every d ms
//will catch up if behind
if(ii>=step2)return(0); //saves time when done
long ms=millis();
//if(ms>=m+d*3)Serial.println("Double-step"); //2 is double, 3 is triple
while((ms>=m+d)&&(ii<step2)){
ccw(); ccw(); off(); m+=d; ii++;
//if(ii%16==1)Serial.println(float(ii)*360/64/8*2);
} //while
//steps left until destination
return(step2-ii);
}
void degrpmslowCool(boolean bcw, long deg100, int rph100) {
//ccw only, more torque, less current, less heat
motorSpeed=1500; //why 1500 needed?
int step2=deg100*64*8/360/100; //rounded down
int d=long(351500)/2/rph100; //div 2? see stepper.xls
for(int i=0;i<step2;i++) {
//can comment out line below sleeps 10ma from 5v regulator
//Narcoleptic.delay
ccw4st1(); off(); delay(d); //cools while off
ccw4st2(); off(); delay(d);
//if(i%16==0)Serial.println(float(i+1)*360/64/8);
} //for
off(); //redundant
}
void degrpmslowHot(boolean bcw, long deg100, int rph100) {
//ccw only, more torque, hot w 12v, use for 5v
motorSpeed=1000; //difference#1
int step2=deg100*64*8/360/100; //rounded down
int d=long(351500)/2/rph100; //div 2? see stepper.xls
for(int i=0;i<step2;i++) {
ccw4st1(); delay(d); //difference#2 off()
ccw4st2(); delay(d);
//if(i%16==0)Serial.println(float(i+1)*360/64/8);
} //for
off();
}
void degrpmslow2(boolean bcw, long deg100, int rph100) {
//ccw only, more torque, less current, less heat, 50% duty cycle
//compromise Hot,Cool
motorSpeed=1000; //12v
int step2=deg100*64*8/360/100; //rounded down
int d=long(351500)/2/rph100; //div 2? see stepper.xls
for(int i=0;i<step2;i++) { //only difference is below
ccw4st1(); off(); delay(d/4); st1(); delay(d/2); off(); delay(d/4);
ccw4st2(); off(); delay(d/4); st2(); delay(d/2); off(); delay(d/4);
} //for
off();
}
void degrpm1(boolean bcw, long deg100, int rpm100) {
//do your own ramping past 17RPM
long step2=deg100*64*8/360/100; //rounded down no limit
if(rpm100<50)rpm100=50; //minimum should use degrpmslow()
motorSpeed=long(1463600)/rpm100-20; //see stepper.xls
for(long i=0;i<step2;i++)
if(bcw)cw(); else ccw();
//can move() here to get better resolution
}
void degrpmEZ(boolean bcw, long deg100, int rpm100) {
//no delay(10) at end
//first 5 lines of degrpm
//max 64 turns
//max 3500 rpm
int step2=deg100*64*8/360/100; //rounded down
if(rpm100<50)rpm100=50; //minimum should use degrpmslow()
rpm100=long(1463600)/rpm100-20; //see stepper.xls
if(bcw) cwss(step2,rpm100);
else ccwss(step2,rpm100);
}
void degrpm(boolean bcw, long deg100, int rpm100) {
//max 64 turns or 23,000 deg or 2,300,000 deg100 long is bigger
//max 3500 rpm100 with 12v
int step2=deg100*64*8/360/100; //rounded down
if(rpm100<50)rpm100=50; //minimum should use degrpmslow()
rpm100=long(1463600)/rpm100-20; //see stepper.xls
if(bcw) cwss(step2,rpm100);
else ccwss(step2,rpm100);
 
//with this code you can step by 2.00 deg 180x will be 360+-1
//0.50 deg 720x works to 360
//even though step size is >0.50 or 0.72?
float movedeg=float(step2)*360/64/8; //float library adds 2K size to sketch
//Serial.println(movedeg);
//Serial.println(movedeg-(float)deg100/100); //moved too little only? never too much
err+=(movedeg-(float)deg100/100);
if(err<-1) {
motorSpeed=1200;
if(bcw) cw(); else ccw();
err+=(float(360)/64/8);
//Serial.print("err=");Serial.println(err);
} //if err
//soft stop moves further than it should
//if(bcw) cwss(15,2000);
//else ccwss(15,2000);
delay(10); //so it stops and holds before off in loop
//off();
}
void degrpm8(boolean bcw, long deg100, int rpm100) {
//max 8 turns
//max <<3500 rpm100 with 12v cuz no ramping ~17RPM
const int min2start=800; //800 12v, 1200 5v
long deg100a=deg100; //deg100 used later dont change
if(deg100a<300)deg100a +=4; //now err can be positive, check %=0 instead?
int step2=deg100a*64*64/360/100; //rounds up/down by 1/2 cuz +4 above, error 1/22nd of degree
if(rpm100<50)rpm100=50; //minimum should use degrpmslow()
rpm100=long(1463600)/rpm100-20; //see stepper.xls same
motorSpeed=rpm100;
if(motorSpeed<min2start)motorSpeed=min2start;
for(int i=0;i<step2;i++) {
if(bcw)stepnum++; else stepnum--;
st07();
}
//was if(bcw)cwss(step2,rpm100);
//does not adjust position for err like degrpm cuz step 0.044 or 1/22 deg small
float movedeg=float(step2)*360/64/64; //float library adds 2K size to sketch
//Serial.println(movedeg);
err+=(movedeg-(float)deg100/100); //not used
//Serial.println(err);
//if(err<-1) {motorSpeed=1200; if(bcw) cw(); else ccw(); err+=(float(360)/64/8);}
//off();
}
void move(boolean bcw){
motorSpeed=1200;
if(bcw)stepnum++; else stepnum--;
if(bcw)movecnt++; else movecnt--;
st07();
//if(movecnt%16==1)Serial.println(float(movecnt)*360/64/64);
}
void ccwss(int steps, int speed) {
int norm=0,last=0,nalarm=0,nar=0;
long sum=0;
//900 self starting 5v motor 5v ps
//800 most of 100% torque
//700 less torque
//600 almost none
//5v motor 12v supply:
//700 self starting
//400 decent torque
//6.6v 20RPM
//8.3v load 8.5v float 6x NiMh
//20RPM strong
//28RPM weak
//15RPM 100% torque
//^does not overheat
//5V 10RPM strong
//5V 20RPM weak
//5V 24RPM no torque
//12V 20RPM self start 35 max speed
//if(speed<700) steps-=10;
//ramp up speed
//const int readadj=100;
motorSpeed=1000; //<12 steps, 800 for 12v
if(steps>=12) {
motorSpeed=3000; if(speed<1200) {ccw(); ccw(); steps-=2;}
motorSpeed=1200; if(speed<1200) {ccw(); ccw(); steps-=2;}
motorSpeed=800; if(speed<800 ) {ccw(); ccw(); steps-=2;}
motorSpeed=700; if(speed<700 ) for(int i=0;i<4;i++) {ccw(); steps--;}
motorSpeed=speed;
} //if
//torque load detect code to prevent destroying motor
for(int i=0;i<steps;i++){
if(nar>=1024){ //lower for slow?
k=sum*5/nar; //why not 6? div 0? fixed
if((k==last)&&(!norm)&&(millis()>5*1000)) norm=k; //since program start
if((k==last)&&(k==norm+1)) norm=k; //within 40 sec when if k>norm+0 below
//if((k==last)&&(k==norm-1)) norm=k;
digitalWrite(13,LOW);
if(!norm)digitalWrite(13,HIGH); //ON until normal is found
//10,-10 for 8v level ground
// 0,-10 for 12v >30RPM only
if(((k>norm+20)&&norm)||((k<norm-20)&&norm)){ //0,-10 can change 2B less sensitive with high load
digitalWrite(13,HIGH);
//will never print past 1 min
//Serial.println();Serial.print(millis()/1000/60);Serial.print(" Min ");Serial.print(nalarm+1);Serial.println(" count");
if(millis()>long(40)*1000){ off(); while(1);} //infinite loop
if(nalarm++>10){ off(); while(1);} //can change 10
} //if load
last=k;
sum=nar=0;
} //if 1024
ccw();
//if(i%16==0)Serial.println(float(i+1)*360/64/8);
//can detect individual outliers here
nar+=8; for(int j=0;j<8;j++) sum+=ar[j];
} //for
} //ccwss()
 
void cwss(int steps, int speed) {
motorSpeed=1000; //<12 steps, 800 for 12v
if(steps>=12) {
motorSpeed=3000; if(speed<1200) {cw(); cw(); steps-=2;}
motorSpeed=1200; if(speed<1200) {cw(); cw(); steps-=2;}
motorSpeed=800; if(speed<800 ) {cw(); cw(); steps-=2;}
motorSpeed=700; if(speed<700 ) for(int i=0;i<4;i++) {cw(); steps--;}
motorSpeed=speed;
} //if
for(int i=0;i<steps;i++) cw(); //64*8 is 1 rev
//load detect code is ccwss only for now
}
void ccw4st1(){
dw(mp1, HIGH);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp4, LOW);
dm(motorSpeed);
//dw(mp1, HIGH);
dw(mp2, HIGH);
//dw(mp3, LOW);
//dw(mp4, LOW);
dm(motorSpeed);
dw(mp1, LOW);
//dw(mp2, HIGH);
//dw(mp3, LOW);
//dw(mp4, LOW);
dm(motorSpeed);
//dw(mp1, LOW);
//dw(mp2, HIGH);
dw(mp3, HIGH);
//dw(mp4, LOW);
dm(motorSpeed);
}
void st1(){
dw(mp1, LOW);
dw(mp2, HIGH);
dw(mp3, HIGH);
dw(mp4, LOW);
}
void ccw4st2(){
dw(mp1, LOW);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp3, HIGH);
dw(mp4, LOW);
dm(motorSpeed);
//dw(mp1, LOW);
//dw(mp2, LOW);
//dw(mp3, HIGH);
dw(mp4, HIGH);
dm(motorSpeed);
//dw(mp1, LOW);
//dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp3, LOW);
//dw(mp4, HIGH);
dm(motorSpeed);
dw(mp1, HIGH);
//dw(mp2, LOW);
//dw(mp3, LOW);
//dw(mp4, HIGH);
dm(motorSpeed);
}
void st2(){
dw(mp1, HIGH);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp4, HIGH);
}
void off(){
dw(mp1, LOW);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp4, LOW);
}
//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//set pins to ULN2003 high in sequence from 1 to 4
void ccw (){
//may throw off rev() and slow() by 14us
//for j loop in ccwss() takes <2ms/rev
int ms=motorSpeed-114; //114 cuz ar 100 calibrated inc code in ccwss()>cwss()
// 1
dw(mp1, HIGH);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp4, LOW);
ar[0]=analogRead(0);
dm(ms);
// 2
dw(mp1, HIGH);
dw(mp2, HIGH);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp4, LOW);
ar[1]=analogRead(0);
dm(ms);
// 3
dw(mp1, LOW);
dw(mp2, HIGH);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp4, LOW);
ar[2]=analogRead(0);
dm(ms);
// 4
dw(mp1, LOW);
dw(mp2, HIGH);
dw(mp3, HIGH);
dw(mp4, LOW);
ar[3]=analogRead(0);
dm(ms);
// 5
dw(mp1, LOW);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp3, HIGH);
dw(mp4, LOW);
ar[4]=analogRead(0);
dm(ms);
// 6
dw(mp1, LOW);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp3, HIGH);
dw(mp4, HIGH);
ar[5]=analogRead(0);
dm(ms);
// 7
dw(mp1, LOW);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp4, HIGH);
ar[6]=analogRead(0);
dm(ms);
// 8
dw(mp1, HIGH);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp4, HIGH);
ar[7]=analogRead(0);
dm(ms);
}
//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//set pins to ULN2003 high in sequence from 4 to 1
void cw(){
// 1
dw(mp4, HIGH);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp1, LOW);
dm(motorSpeed);
// 2
//dw(mp4, HIGH);
dw(mp3, HIGH);
//dw(mp2, LOW);
//dw(mp1, LOW);
dm(motorSpeed);
// 3
dw(mp4, LOW);
//dw(mp3, HIGH);
//dw(mp2, LOW);
//dw(mp1, LOW);
dm(motorSpeed);
// 4
//dw(mp4, LOW);
//dw(mp3, HIGH);
dw(mp2, HIGH);
//dw(mp1, LOW);
dm(motorSpeed);
// 5
//dw(mp4, LOW);
dw(mp3, LOW);
//dw(mp2, HIGH);
//dw(mp1, LOW);
dm(motorSpeed);
// 6
//dw(mp4, LOW);
//dw(mp3, LOW);
//dw(mp2, HIGH);
dw(mp1, HIGH);
dm(motorSpeed);
// 7
//dw(mp4, LOW);
//dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp2, LOW);
//dw(mp1, HIGH);
dm(motorSpeed);
// 8
dw(mp4, HIGH);
//dw(mp3, LOW);
//dw(mp2, LOW);
//dw(mp1, HIGH);
dm(motorSpeed);
}
void st07(){
if(stepnum==-1)stepnum=7;
if(stepnum== 8)stepnum=0;
switch(stepnum){
case 0:
dw(mp4, HIGH);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp1, LOW);
break;
case 1:
dw(mp4, HIGH);
dw(mp3, HIGH);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp1, LOW);
break;
case 2:
dw(mp4, LOW);
dw(mp3, HIGH);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp1, LOW);
break;
case 3:
dw(mp4, LOW);
dw(mp3, HIGH);
dw(mp2, HIGH);
dw(mp1, LOW);
break;
case 4:
dw(mp4, LOW);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp2, HIGH);
dw(mp1, LOW);
break;
case 5:
dw(mp4, LOW);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp2, HIGH);
dw(mp1, HIGH);
break;
case 6:
dw(mp4, LOW);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp1, HIGH);
break;
case 7:
dw(mp4, HIGH);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp1, HIGH);
break;
}
//for all cases
dm(motorSpeed);
}
void st03(){
if(stepnum==-1)stepnum=3;
if(stepnum== 4)stepnum=0;
switch(stepnum){
case 0:
dw(mp4, HIGH);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp1, LOW);
break;
case 1:
dw(mp4, LOW);
dw(mp3, HIGH);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp1, LOW);
break;
case 2:
dw(mp4, LOW);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp2, HIGH);
dw(mp1, LOW);
break;
case 3:
dw(mp4, LOW);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp1, HIGH);
break;
}
//for all cases
dm(motorSpeed);
}
void st03aw(){
if(stepnum==-1)stepnum=3;
if(stepnum== 4)stepnum=0;
switch(stepnum){
case 0:
AW41
AW30
AW20
AW10
break;
case 1:
AW40
AW31
AW20
AW10
break;
case 2:
AW40
AW30
AW21
AW10
break;
case 3:
AW40
AW30
AW20
AW11
break;
}
//for all cases
dm(motorSpeed);
}
void sinemod(){
//sine wave modulation smoother
//fastest is 0,126,128,1 = 3ms if less use lowpmidsp()
//slower than 100 use slowpwr()
//motorspeed=((hi-lo+1)*de1+sp) or 9*2+5 not x4
const int sp=22;
const int lo=120; //was110, 120-126 fastest
const int hi=128; //was128
const int de1=2;
const int pwrsav=110; //50-130 almost 255 need 130 for pin 13 only cuz NOT PWM
//5,50 15,110 500,120 is good pwrsave depends on sp, 112 useful when slow
//de(1) is weak
int i;
for(i=hi;i>=lo;i--){aw(mp1a,i);aw(mp2a,hi-i+lo);de(de1);}aw(mp1a,0);aw(mp2a,pwrsav);de(sp);
for(i=hi;i>=lo;i--){aw(mp2a,i);aw(mp3a,hi-i+lo);de(de1);}aw(mp2a,0);aw(mp3a,pwrsav);de(sp);
for(i=hi;i>=lo;i--){aw(mp3a,i);aw(mp4a,hi-i+lo);de(de1);}aw(mp3a,0);aw(mp4a,130);de(sp); //difference cuz NOT PWM
for(i=hi;i>=lo;i--){aw(mp4a,i);aw(mp1a,hi-i+lo);de(de1);}aw(mp4a,0);aw(mp1a,pwrsav);de(sp);
}
void stophold(int v){
//210-250 is 2.1-2.5v
off();
//aw(mp1a,v*25/5/10); //test 256/5/100 or just /2
switch(stepnum){
//case 0:aw(mp4a,130); break;
case 0:aw(mp3a,v*25/5/10);break; //mp4 off mp3 twice bug cuz 13 NOT PWM
case 1:aw(mp3a,v*25/5/10);break;
case 2:aw(mp2a,v*25/5/10);break;
case 3:aw(mp1a,v*25/5/10);break;
}}
void topspeed(int cw){
//define volt 1
motorSpeed=1;
stepnum-=cw;
movecnt++;
st03();
st03aw();
fastout;
//500 OK 700 safe can add 100-200 any of 3 places below
//sum of 3 dm range 800-1000 stronger
if(movecnt%100)dm(500); else dm(800);
fastin; //matters less
dm(250); //was 250
AW10 AW20 AW30 AW40 //how can this matter? It really does try it!
dm(250); //was 50. 250 best for a little power savings
}
void topspeed_nocap(int cw){
motorSpeed=1;
stepnum-=cw;
movecnt++;
st03();
//900,1200 works
if(movecnt%100)dm(1500); else dm(1800);
}
void toppwr(int cw){
//define volt 1 no need
motorSpeed=1;
stepnum-=cw;
movecnt++;
st03();
fastout; //already?
dm(2000);
}
void lowpmidsp(){
motorSpeed=1;
stepnum++;
movecnt++;
st03();
st03aw(); //define volt 1v
fastout;
//20 less power
//if 20,50 smoother at slow speeds
//dm 50,1200 borderline safe long term temp driver IC hotter than motor
//dm 20,3000 body temp
if(movecnt%100)dm(20); else dm(100); //if 20,50 or 500 makes click to restart stalled
fastin;
dm(3000); //1200-3000 1/speed slower use sinemod()
}
void slowpwr(){
motorSpeed=1;
stepnum++;
movecnt++;
fastout;
st03();
st03aw(); //define volt 1
de(1);
fastin;
stophold(210); //210-250, 220 warm, 210 cool
de(40); //speed <100 use sinemod
AW10 AW20 AW30 AW40
}
void fastcam(){
//req 1uf cap or use alternative code topspeed_nocap()
toppwr(1); de(80);
toppwr(1); de(3); // 3+2 = 1/5 topspeed
toppwr(1);
for(ii=0;ii<60/2*40/36-3-5;ii++) topspeed(1);
for(ii=0;ii<5;ii++) {topspeed(1); de(12*ii);}
stophold(220); de(2000);
 
toppwr(-1); de(7);
toppwr(-1); de(5);
for(ii=0;ii<60/2*40/36-2;ii++) topspeed(-1);
stophold(210); de(2000);
}
void degrpm1A(boolean bcw, long deg100, int rpm100) {
int cw;
if(bcw) cw=1; else cw=-1;
//rpm100=10000; //300RPM max 100RPM 5v runs cold
//motorSpeed overflow when RPM=1 use d in 1Aslow() instead
//use mydelayus() in st07() for multitasking untested
motorSpeed=(long(14630)*4096/4 )/rpm100-20;
//motorSpeed/=4; //1/4 duty warm 10RPM still ok full duty? IC hotter than motor?
for(int i=0;i<deg100*40/36/100;i++) {
stepnum+=cw;
movecnt++;
st07(); //st07 is half step 1500 fastest
//off();dm(motorSpeed*3); //1/4 duty
}}
void degrpm1Arampduty(boolean bcw, long deg100, int rpm100) {
int cw;
if(bcw) cw=1; else cw=-1;
rpm100=5000; //300RPM max 100RPM 5v runs cold 100RPM max 1/4 duty >250 skips on start no load
//cannnot spin DSLR at 100RPM?
//use mydelayus() in st07() for multitasking and dm and delay at bottom untested
motorSpeed=2*(long(14630)*4096/4 )/rpm100-20;
for(int i=0;i<10;i++) {
stepnum+=cw;
movecnt++;
st07();
}
motorSpeed= (long(14630)*4096/4 )/rpm100-20;
for(int i=0;i<10;i++) {
stepnum+=cw;
movecnt++;
st07();
}
motorSpeed/=4;
for(int i=0;i<deg100*40/36/100-20;i++) {
stepnum+=cw;
movecnt++;
st07();
off();dm(motorSpeed*3); //1/4 duty
}
st07();delay(500); //hold for 1/2s
off();
}
void degrpm1Aslow(boolean bcw, long deg100, int rpm100) {
int cw,d;
if(bcw) cw=1; else cw=-1;
//motorSpeed overflow when RPM=1 use d instead
//jerky like drum beat when 5v half step st07() cuz cannot drive 2 coils on same side of board/LED's adjacent
//use st03() instead?
motorSpeed=(long(14630)*4096/4 )/rpm100-20; //*1000 below microsec
d= (long(1463 )*4096/400)/rpm100; motorSpeed=1;
//d/=2; //1/2 duty continuous only warm at 10RPM
for(int i=0;i<deg100*40/36/100;i++) {
stepnum+=cw;
movecnt++;
st07(); //st07 is half step 1500 fastest
mydelay(d); //motorSpeed tiny in st07
//off();mydelay(d); //1/2 duty
}}
void mydelay(long d){
long ms=millis();
while(millis()<ms+d) {
//10RPM is 15ms
//do anything here instead of delay(1)
delay(1);
}}
void mydelayus(long d){
long ms=micros();
while(micros()<ms+d) {
//100RPM is 1500us
//do anything here instead of delay
delayMicroseconds(100);
}}
/*
need 1uf cap and 1k res:
sto3aw
sinemod
stophold
topspeed
lowpmid
slowpwr
!toppwr
!st03
*/
step1p1dps.pde
Processing
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232
#define dw digitalWrite
#define dm delayMicroseconds
#define de delay
#define P(s) Serial.print(s);
#define P32 Serial.write(32);
#define P13 Serial.write(10);
#define fastout {pinMode(mp1,OUTPUT);pinMode(mp2,OUTPUT);pinMode(mp3,OUTPUT);pinMode(mp4,OUTPUT);}
#define fastin {pinMode(mp1,INPUT );pinMode(mp2,INPUT );pinMode(mp3,INPUT );pinMode(mp4,INPUT );}
const int mp1 = 2; // Blue - 28BYJ48 pin 1
const int mp2 = 3; // Pink - 28BYJ48 pin 2
const int mp3 = 4; // Yellow - 28BYJ48 pin 3
const int mp4 = 5; // Orange - 28BYJ48 pin 4
// Red - 28BYJ48 pin 5 VCC
long motorSpeed=3000; // set stepper speed, period actually, changed long for 1A not used?
int stepnum=0; // current microstep 0-7
int movecnt=0; // running total of steps taken in move(), &=4095 in moveto
long m; // millis()
 
void setup() {
fastout
//Serial.begin(9600);
}
void loop(){
//half step wo 1uf cap 1k res st07()
//10x faster, 10x more deg/step than little motor 64:1 gear
//600 fastest
//1000 stronger
//1600 1/4 duty
//2000 1/4 ideal no vibe but weak
//3200 1/4 slowest wo vibe, smoother=full duty
//5000 slowest full duty
//3000 fastest st03aw (3v critical) same speed as 1500 1/4 duty cuz 4/8 steps
//5000 strong w 1uf caps st03aw
//900 full step st03() is 450 faster than half step
//degrpm1Arampduty(0,18000,10000); de(500);
//degrpm1Arampduty(1,18000,10000); de(500);
degrpm1A(1,180000,100); de(1000);
}
void st07(){
if(stepnum==-1)stepnum=7;
if(stepnum== 8)stepnum=0;
switch(stepnum){
case 0:
dw(mp4, HIGH);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp1, LOW);
break;
case 1:
dw(mp4, HIGH);
dw(mp3, HIGH);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp1, LOW);
break;
case 2:
dw(mp4, LOW);
dw(mp3, HIGH);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp1, LOW);
break;
case 3:
dw(mp4, LOW);
dw(mp3, HIGH);
dw(mp2, HIGH);
dw(mp1, LOW);
break;
case 4:
dw(mp4, LOW);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp2, HIGH);
dw(mp1, LOW);
break;
case 5:
dw(mp4, LOW);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp2, HIGH);
dw(mp1, HIGH);
break;
case 6:
dw(mp4, LOW);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp1, HIGH);
break;
case 7:
dw(mp4, HIGH);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp1, HIGH);
break;
}
//for all cases
dm(motorSpeed);
}
void st03(){
if(stepnum==-1)stepnum=3;
if(stepnum== 4)stepnum=0;
switch(stepnum){
case 0:
dw(mp4, HIGH); //can do 4 steps 2 coils at once, but need bigger power supply 12v 2A -> 5A
dw(mp3, LOW); //no improvement with current PS runs much hotter with 5A PS
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp1, LOW);
break;
case 1:
dw(mp4, LOW);
dw(mp3, HIGH);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp1, LOW);
break;
case 2:
dw(mp4, LOW);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp2, HIGH);
dw(mp1, LOW);
break;
case 3:
dw(mp4, LOW);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp1, HIGH);
break;
}
//for all cases
dm(motorSpeed);
}
void off(){
dw(mp1, LOW);
dw(mp2, LOW);
dw(mp3, LOW);
dw(mp4, LOW);
}
void topspeed_nocap(int cw){
motorSpeed=1;
stepnum-=cw;
movecnt++;
st03();
//900,1200 works
if(movecnt%100)dm(1500); else dm(1800);
}
void toppwr(int cw){
//define volt 1 no need
motorSpeed=1;
stepnum-=cw;
movecnt++;
st03();
fastout; //already?
dm(2000);
}
void degrpm1A(boolean bcw, long deg100, int rpm100) {
int cw;
if(bcw) cw=1; else cw=-1;
//rpm100=30000; //300RPM max 100RPM 5v runs cold
//motorSpeed overflow when RPM=1 use d in 1Aslow() instead
//use mydelayus() in st07() for multitasking untested
motorSpeed=(long(14630)*4096/4 )/rpm100-20;
//motorSpeed/=4; //1/4 duty warm 10RPM still ok full duty? IC hotter than motor?
for(int i=0;i<deg100*40/36/100;i++) {
stepnum+=cw;
movecnt++;
st07(); //st07 is half step 1500us fastest, st03 faster 32RPM
//off();dm(motorSpeed*3); //1/4 duty
}}
void degrpm1Arampduty(boolean bcw, long deg100, int rpm100) {
int cw;
if(bcw) cw=1; else cw=-1;
rpm100=5000; //300RPM max 100RPM 5v runs cold 100RPM max 1/4 duty >250 skips on start no load
//cannnot spin DSLR at 100RPM?
//use mydelayus() in st07() for multitasking and dm and delay at bottom untested
motorSpeed=2*(long(14630)*4096/4 )/rpm100-20;
for(int i=0;i<10;i++) {
stepnum+=cw;
movecnt++;
st07();
}
motorSpeed= (long(14630)*4096/4 )/rpm100-20;
for(int i=0;i<10;i++) {
stepnum+=cw;
movecnt++;
st07();
}
motorSpeed/=4;
for(int i=0;i<deg100*40/36/100-20;i++) {
stepnum+=cw;
movecnt++;
st07();
off();dm(motorSpeed*3); //1/4 duty
}
st07();delay(500); //hold for 1/2s
off();
}
void degrpm1Aslow(boolean bcw, long deg100, int rpm100) {
int cw,d;
if(bcw) cw=1; else cw=-1;
//motorSpeed overflow when RPM=1 use d instead
//jerky like drum beat when 5v half step st07() cuz cannot drive 2 coils on same side of board/LED's adjacent
//use st03() instead
motorSpeed=(long(14630)*4096/4 )/rpm100-20; //*1000 below microsec
d= (long(1463 )*4096/400)/rpm100; motorSpeed=1;
//d/=2; //1/2 duty continuous only warm at 10RPM
for(int i=0;i<deg100*40/36/100;i++) {
stepnum+=cw;
movecnt++;
st07(); //st07 is half step 1500 fastest
mydelay(d); //motorSpeed tiny in st07
//off();mydelay(d); //1/2 duty
}}
void mydelay(long d){
long ms=millis();
while(millis()<ms+d) {
//10RPM is 15ms
//do anything here instead of delay(1)
delay(1);
}}
void mydelayus(long d){
long ms=micros();
while(micros()<ms+d) {
//100RPM is 1500us
//do anything here instead of delay
delayMicroseconds(100);
}}
/*
need 1uf cap and 1k res:
sto3aw
sinemod
stophold
topspeed
lowpmid
slowpwr
!toppwr
!st03
*/

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