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An ultra-lightweight Twitter client in C#
using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Globalization;
using System.Security.Cryptography;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text.RegularExpressions;
using System.Net;
using System.Web;
using System.Text;
using Newtonsoft.Json;
namespace TwitterClient
{
/// <summary>
/// Entry point API for Twitter requests
/// </summary>
public class API
{
public OAuth.Tokens Tokens { get; set; }
public readonly string BaseUrl = "https://api.twitter.com/1.1/";
public API() { }
/// <summary>
/// Creates a Twitter API object using Twitter authentication keys.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="accessToken"></param>
/// <param name="accessTokenSecret"></param>
/// <param name="consumerKey"></param>
/// <param name="consumerSecret"></param>
public API(string accessToken, string accessTokenSecret, string consumerKey, string consumerSecret)
{
Tokens = new OAuth.Tokens();
Tokens.AccessToken = accessToken;
Tokens.AccessTokenSecret = accessTokenSecret;
Tokens.ConsumerKey = consumerKey;
Tokens.ConsumerSecret = consumerSecret;
}
/// <summary>
/// Performs a GET request on Twitter API using querystring parameters provided.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="method">The API method to use (ie 'statuses/user_timeline.json')</param>
/// <param name="querystring">A list of querystring parameters</param>
/// <returns></returns>
public List<JSONObject> Get(string method, Parameters querystring)
{
return Request(RequestType.GET, method, querystring);
}
/// <summary>
/// Performs a GET request on Twitter API using a raw URL or API method name
/// </summary>
/// <param name="urlOrMethodAndParameters">A Raw URL (ie 'https://api.twitter.com..') or API method name (ie 'statuses/user_timeline.json')</param>
/// <returns></returns>
public List<JSONObject> Get(string urlOrMethodAndParameters)
{
return Request(RequestType.GET, urlOrMethodAndParameters, null);
}
/// <summary>
/// Performs a POST request on Twitter API using an API method and parameter information
/// </summary>
/// <param name="method">The API method to use (ie 'statuses/user_timeline.json')</param>
/// <param name="form">A list of form parameter</param>
/// <returns></returns>
public List<JSONObject> Post(string method, Parameters form)
{
return Request(RequestType.POST, method, form);
}
/// <summary>
/// Performs a DELETE request on Twitter API using an API method and parameter information
/// </summary>
/// <param name="method"></param>
/// <param name="form"></param>
/// <returns></returns>
public List<JSONObject> Delete(string method, Parameters form)
{
return Request(RequestType.DELETE, method, form);
}
private enum RequestType { GET, POST, DELETE }
private List<JSONObject> Request(RequestType type, string urlFragment, Parameters parameters)
{
Uri uri = GetUri(type, urlFragment, parameters);
WebRequest request = HttpWebRequest.Create(uri);
request.Method = type.ToString();
if (type == RequestType.POST || type == RequestType.DELETE)
{
request.ContentType = "application/x-www-form-urlencoded";
using (StreamWriter writer = new StreamWriter(request.GetRequestStream()))
{
string body = parameters.ToString();
writer.Write(body);
}
}
OAuth.Sign(request, Tokens, parameters);
try
{
using (WebResponse response = request.GetResponse())
{
using (StreamReader reader = new StreamReader(response.GetResponseStream()))
{
string responseText = reader.ReadToEnd();
object result = JsonConvert.DeserializeObject(responseText);
if (result is Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JArray)
return JsonConvert.DeserializeObject<List<JSONObject>>(responseText);
if (result is Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken)
return new List<JSONObject> { JsonConvert.DeserializeObject<JSONObject>(responseText) };
return new List<JSONObject>();
}
}
}
catch (Exception ex)
{
request.Abort();
throw ex;
}
}
private Uri GetUri(RequestType type, string urlFragment, Parameters parameters)
{
string baseUrl = BaseUrl + urlFragment;
if (urlFragment.ToLower().StartsWith("http"))
{
baseUrl = urlFragment;
}
try
{
switch (type)
{
case RequestType.POST:
case RequestType.DELETE:
return new Uri(baseUrl);
default:
if (parameters == null || parameters.Count == 0) return new Uri(baseUrl);
if (!baseUrl.Contains("?")) baseUrl += "?";
else if (!baseUrl.EndsWith("&")) baseUrl += "&";
return new Uri(baseUrl + parameters.ToString());
}
}
catch
{
throw new Exception(String.Format("The url you are using is not well formed: {0} ", baseUrl));
}
}
}
/// <summary>
/// Encapsulates GET/POST parameter functionality
/// </summary>
public class Parameters : Dictionary<string, object>
{
public Parameters() : base() { }
public Parameters(string field, object value)
: base()
{
this.Add(field, value);
}
/// <summary>
/// Returns a URL/Formbody representation of the parameters
/// </summary>
/// <returns></returns>
public override string ToString()
{
List<string> output = new List<string>();
foreach (string key in this.Keys)
{
output.Add(String.Format("{0}={1}", UrlEncode(key), UrlEncode(this[key])));
}
return String.Join("&", output.ToArray());
}
/// <summary>
/// Parses objects into URL escaped strings
/// </summary>
/// <param name="obj"></param>
/// <returns></returns>
public static string UrlEncode(object obj)
{
string result = Uri.EscapeDataString(Parse(obj));
// These characters are not escaped by EscapeDataString()
result = result
.Replace("(", "%28")
.Replace(")", "%29")
.Replace("$", "%24")
.Replace("!", "%21")
.Replace("*", "%2A")
.Replace("'", "%27");
// Tilde gets escaped but is a reserved character and is thus allowed.
// @see https://dev.twitter.com/oauth/overview/percent-encoding-parameters
result = result.Replace("%7E", "~");
return result;
}
/// <summary>
/// Parses object into strings
/// </summary>
/// <param name="obj"></param>
/// <returns></returns>
public static string Parse(object obj)
{
string result = String.Empty;
if (obj != null)
{
switch (obj.GetType().FullName)
{
case "System.Boolean":
result = String.Format("{0}", obj).ToLower();
break;
case "System.DateTime":
result = String.Format("{0}", ((DateTime)obj).Ticks);
break;
default:
result = String.Format("{0}", obj);
break;
}
}
return result;
}
}
/// <summary>
/// Encapsulates API JSON results
/// </summary>
public class JSONObject : Dictionary<string, object>
{
/// <summary>
/// Gets a JSON property by key
/// </summary>
/// <param name="key">Name of the property to obtain</param>
/// <returns></returns>
public object Get(string key)
{
if (key != null)
{
if (this.ContainsKey(key)) return this[key];
else if (key.Contains('.'))
{
JSONObject parent = this;
string[] segments = key.Split('.');
for (var i = 0; i < segments.Length - 1; i++)
{
key = segments[i];
if (!parent.ContainsKey(key)) break;
parent = parent.Get<JSONObject>(key);
}
key = segments[segments.Length - 1];
if (parent.ContainsKey(key))
return parent.Get(key);
}
}
return null;
}
/// <summary>
/// Gets an strongly typed JSON property by key
/// </summary>
/// <typeparam name="T">The type to convert value to (int, string etc..)</typeparam>
/// <param name="key">Name of the property to obtain</param>
/// <returns></returns>
public T Get<T>(string key)
{
object output = Get(key);
if (output != null)
{
try
{
return (T)Convert.ChangeType(output, typeof(T));
}
catch
{
return JsonConvert.DeserializeObject<T>(JsonConvert.SerializeObject(output));
}
}
return default(T);
}
/// <summary>
/// Gets a strongly typed list of items from a JSON property
/// </summary>
/// <typeparam name="T">The type for list items (int, string etc..)</typeparam>
/// <param name="key">Name of the property to obtain</param>
/// <returns></returns>
public List<T> GetList<T>(string key)
{
return Get<List<T>>(key);
}
}
/// <summary>
/// Used to sign HTTP requests using Twitter OAuth authentication
/// </summary>
public static class OAuth
{
/// <summary>
/// Signs a web request by adding signed OAuth Authorisation header
/// </summary>
/// <param name="request">The WebRequest object to add OAuth header to</param>
/// <param name="tokens">Twitter OAuth API Parameters</param>
public static void Sign(WebRequest request, Tokens tokens, Parameters parameters)
{
parameters = parameters ?? new Parameters();
if (request.RequestUri.Query.Contains("?"))
{
string query = request.RequestUri.Query.Substring(1);
foreach (string queryParameter in query.Split('&'))
{
string[] kvp = queryParameter.Split('=');
if (!parameters.ContainsKey(kvp[0]))
{
try { parameters.Add(kvp[0], kvp[1]); }
catch { }
}
}
}
parameters.Add("oauth_version", "1.0");
parameters.Add("oauth_nonce", GetNonce());
parameters.Add("oauth_timestamp", GetTimeStamp());
parameters.Add("oauth_signature_method", "HMAC-SHA1");
parameters.Add("oauth_consumer_key", tokens.ConsumerKey);
parameters.Add("oauth_consumer_secret", tokens.ConsumerSecret);
if (!String.IsNullOrEmpty(tokens.AccessToken))
{
parameters.Add("oauth_token", tokens.AccessToken);
}
if (!String.IsNullOrEmpty(tokens.AccessTokenSecret))
{
parameters.Add("oauth_token_secret", tokens.AccessTokenSecret);
}
// Add signaure
parameters.Add("oauth_signature", GetSignature(request, parameters, tokens));
// Append OAuth header
request.Headers.Add("Authorization", GetOAuth(parameters));
}
/// <summary>
/// Twitter OAuth tokens
/// </summary>
public class Tokens
{
public string ConsumerKey { get; set; }
public string ConsumerSecret { get; set; }
public string AccessToken { get; set; }
public string AccessTokenSecret { get; set; }
}
#region Helper Methods
/// <summary>
/// Get the timestamp for the signature
/// </summary>
private static string GetTimeStamp()
{
// UNIX time of the current UTC time
TimeSpan span = DateTime.UtcNow - new DateTime(1970, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0);
return Convert.ToInt64(span.TotalSeconds, CultureInfo.CurrentCulture).ToString(CultureInfo.CurrentCulture);
}
/// <summary>
/// Get a nonce
/// </summary>
private static string GetNonce()
{
return Guid.NewGuid().ToString().Replace("-", "");
}
/// <summary>
/// Generates the signature.
/// @see https://dev.twitter.com/oauth/overview/creating-signatures
/// </summary>
private static string GetSignature(WebRequest request, Parameters parameters, Tokens tokens)
{
string signatureBaseString = GetSignatureBaseString(request, parameters);
// Create our hash key
string key = String.Format("{0}&{1}",
Parameters.UrlEncode(tokens.ConsumerSecret),
Parameters.UrlEncode(tokens.AccessTokenSecret));
// Generate the hash
HMACSHA1 hmacsha1 = new HMACSHA1(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(key));
byte[] signatureBytes = hmacsha1.ComputeHash(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(signatureBaseString));
return Convert.ToBase64String(signatureBytes);
}
/// <summary>
/// Generates the sigature base string
/// </summary>
private static string GetSignatureBaseString(WebRequest request, Parameters parameters)
{
StringBuilder parameterString = new StringBuilder();
string[] secretParameters = new string[] {
"oauth_consumer_secret",
"oauth_token_secret",
"oauth_signature"
};
// Loop through an ordered set of parameters
// excluding any secret oauth parameters
foreach (var item in (from p in parameters
where (!secretParameters.Contains(p.Key))
orderby p.Key, p.Value
select p))
{
if (parameterString.Length > 0) parameterString.Append("&");
string value = Parameters.Parse(item.Value);
parameterString.Append(
String.Format("{0}={1}",
Parameters.UrlEncode(item.Key),
Parameters.UrlEncode(value)));
}
// Join output
return String.Format("{0}&{1}&{2}",
request.Method.ToUpper(),
Parameters.UrlEncode(NormalizeUrl(request.RequestUri)),
Parameters.UrlEncode(parameterString.ToString()));
}
/// <summary>
/// Returns a string representation of OAuth header
/// </summary>
private static string GetOAuth(Parameters parameters)
{
List<string> output = new List<string>();
foreach (string key in new string[] {
"oauth_consumer_key",
"oauth_nonce",
"oauth_signature",
"oauth_signature_method",
"oauth_timestamp",
"oauth_token",
"oauth_version"
})
{
if (parameters.ContainsKey(key))
output.Add(String.Format("{0}=\"{1}\"", Parameters.UrlEncode(key), Parameters.UrlEncode(parameters[key])));
}
return String.Format("OAuth {0}", String.Join(", ", output.ToArray()));
}
/// <summary>
/// Normalizes the URL.
/// </summary>
private static string NormalizeUrl(Uri url)
{
return String.Format("{0}://{1}{2}", url.Scheme, url.Host, url.AbsolutePath);
}
#endregion
}
}
@sdesalas

This comment has been minimized.

Owner

sdesalas commented Nov 18, 2014

This is a single-file twitter client with a clean API that can be added easily to any project you are working on.

Requirements

  • Visual Studio 2008 and upwards
  • Twitter account and available keys

Usage

  1. Add TwitterClient.cs to your codebase
  2. Add Newtonsoft.Json.dll library as a reference.
  3. Configure with Twitter tokens and keys
  4. Start Tweeting

Example

public class Program
{
    // Replace these with actual values
    public static API api = new API(
        "TWITTER-ACCESS-TOKEN",
        "TWITTER-ACCESS-TOKEN-SECRET",
        "TWITTER-CONSUMER-KEY",
        "TWITTER-CONSUMER-SECRET"); 

    public static void Main(string[] args)
    {
        foreach (JSONObject json in api.Get("statuses/user_timeline.json", new Parameters { 
                {"screen_name", "twitterapi"},
                {"count", 2}
            }))
        {
            Console.WriteLine(json.Get("text"));
            foreach (JSONObject url in json.GetList<JSONObject>("entities.urls"))
            {
                Console.WriteLine(" - url: " + url.Get("url"));
            }
        }
        api.Post("statuses/update.json", new Parameters { 
            {"status", "Hi this is a test"}
        });
        Console.WriteLine(" - Message tweeted.");
    }
}
@ottadvantage

This comment has been minimized.

ottadvantage commented Jun 22, 2016

This works great, thanks so much.
I just need to build out the OAuth flow to go with this (since we need 3-legged OAuth) and we'll be good to go!

@mnbf9rca

This comment has been minimized.

mnbf9rca commented Oct 19, 2016

really happy with this - thanks. I included it in my Twitter Azure function App (https://github.com/mnbf9rca/TwitterFunctionApp/blob/master/postToTwitter.csx) - i had to add some better error handling to api.request() though to handle e.g. duplicate messages. It's pretty crude now but i'll work on it some more.

@ltouro

This comment has been minimized.

ltouro commented Oct 9, 2018

Changed to work with application/json format for POSTs.

using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Globalization;
using System.Security.Cryptography;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text.RegularExpressions;
using System.Net;
using System.Web;
using System.Text;
using Newtonsoft.Json;

namespace TwitterClient
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Entry point API for Twitter requests
    /// </summary>
    public class API
    {
        public OAuth.Tokens Tokens { get; set; }

        public readonly string BaseUrl = "https://api.twitter.com/1.1/";

        public API() { }

        /// <summary>
        /// Creates a Twitter API object using Twitter authentication keys.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="accessToken"></param>
        /// <param name="accessTokenSecret"></param>
        /// <param name="consumerKey"></param>
        /// <param name="consumerSecret"></param>
        public API(string accessToken, string accessTokenSecret, string consumerKey, string consumerSecret)
        {
            Tokens = new OAuth.Tokens();
            Tokens.AccessToken = accessToken;
            Tokens.AccessTokenSecret = accessTokenSecret;
            Tokens.ConsumerKey = consumerKey;
            Tokens.ConsumerSecret = consumerSecret;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Performs a GET request on Twitter API using querystring parameters provided.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="method">The API method to use (ie 'statuses/user_timeline.json')</param>
        /// <param name="querystring">A list of querystring parameters</param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public List<JSONObject> Get(string method, Parameters querystring)
        {
            return Request(RequestType.GET, method, querystring);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Performs a GET request on Twitter API using a raw URL or API method name
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="urlOrMethodAndParameters">A Raw URL (ie 'https://api.twitter.com..') or API method name (ie 'statuses/user_timeline.json')</param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public List<JSONObject> Get(string urlOrMethodAndParameters)
        {
            return Request(RequestType.GET, urlOrMethodAndParameters, null);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Performs a POST request on Twitter API using an API method and parameter information
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="method">The API method to use (ie 'statuses/user_timeline.json')</param>
        /// <param name="form">A list of form parameter</param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public List<JSONObject> Post(string method, Parameters form)
        {
            return Request(RequestType.POST, method, form);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Performs a DELETE request on Twitter API using an API method and parameter information
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="method"></param>
        /// <param name="form"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public List<JSONObject> Delete(string method, Parameters form)
        {
            return Request(RequestType.DELETE, method, form);
        }

        private enum RequestType { GET, POST, DELETE }

        private List<JSONObject> Request(RequestType type, string urlFragment, Parameters parameters)
        {
            Uri uri = GetUri(type, urlFragment, parameters);
            WebRequest request = HttpWebRequest.Create(uri);
            request.Method = type.ToString();
            if (type == RequestType.POST || type == RequestType.DELETE)
            {
                var json = parameters.ToJson();
                parameters = new Parameters();
                request.ContentType = "application/json";
                using (StreamWriter writer = new StreamWriter(request.GetRequestStream()))
                {                    
                    writer.Write(json);                    
                }

            }
            OAuth.Sign(request, Tokens, parameters);
            try
            {
                using (WebResponse response = request.GetResponse())
                {
                    using (StreamReader reader = new StreamReader(response.GetResponseStream()))
                    {
                        string responseText = reader.ReadToEnd();
                        object result = JsonConvert.DeserializeObject(responseText);
                        if (result is Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JArray)
                            return JsonConvert.DeserializeObject<List<JSONObject>>(responseText);
                        if (result is Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken)
                            return new List<JSONObject> { JsonConvert.DeserializeObject<JSONObject>(responseText) };
                        return new List<JSONObject>();
                    }
                }
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                request.Abort();
                throw ex;
            }
        }

        private Uri GetUri(RequestType type, string urlFragment, Parameters parameters)
        {
            string baseUrl = BaseUrl + urlFragment;
            if (urlFragment.ToLower().StartsWith("http"))
            {
                baseUrl = urlFragment;
            }
            try
            {
                switch (type)
                {
                    case RequestType.POST:
                    case RequestType.DELETE:
                        return new Uri(baseUrl);

                    default:
                        if (parameters == null || parameters.Count == 0) return new Uri(baseUrl);
                        if (!baseUrl.Contains("?")) baseUrl += "?";
                        else if (!baseUrl.EndsWith("&")) baseUrl += "&";
                        return new Uri(baseUrl + parameters.ToString());
                }
            }
            catch
            {
                throw new Exception(String.Format("The url you are using is not well formed: {0} ", baseUrl));
            }
        }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Encapsulates GET/POST parameter functionality
    /// </summary>
    public class Parameters : Dictionary<string, object>
    {
        public Parameters() : base() { }

        public Parameters(string field, object value)
            : base()
        {
            this.Add(field, value);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Returns a URL/Formbody representation of the parameters
        /// </summary>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public override string ToString()
        {
            List<string> output = new List<string>();
            foreach (string key in this.Keys)
            {
                output.Add(String.Format("{0}={1}", UrlEncode(key), UrlEncode(this[key])));
            }
            return String.Join("&", output.ToArray());
        }

        public string ToJson()
        {
            return JsonConvert.SerializeObject(this, Formatting.None);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Parses objects into URL escaped strings
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="obj"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public static string UrlEncode(object obj)
        {
            string result = Uri.EscapeDataString(Parse(obj));

            // These characters are not escaped by EscapeDataString() 
            result = result
                .Replace("(", "%28")
                .Replace(")", "%29")
                .Replace("$", "%24")
                .Replace("!", "%21")
                .Replace("*", "%2A")
                .Replace("'", "%27");

            // Tilde gets escaped but is a reserved character and is thus allowed.
            // @see https://dev.twitter.com/oauth/overview/percent-encoding-parameters
            result = result.Replace("%7E", "~");
            return result;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Parses object into strings
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="obj"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public static string Parse(object obj)
        {
            string result = String.Empty;
            if (obj != null)
            {
                switch (obj.GetType().FullName)
                {
                    case "System.Boolean":
                        result = String.Format("{0}", obj).ToLower();
                        break;
                    case "System.DateTime":
                        result = String.Format("{0}", ((DateTime)obj).Ticks);
                        break;
                    default:
                        result = String.Format("{0}", obj);
                        break;
                }
            }
            return result;
        }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Encapsulates API JSON results
    /// </summary>
    public class JSONObject : Dictionary<string, object>
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// Gets a JSON property by key
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="key">Name of the property to obtain</param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public object Get(string key)
        {
            if (key != null)
            {
                if (this.ContainsKey(key)) return this[key];
                else if (key.Contains('.'))
                {
                    JSONObject parent = this;
                    string[] segments = key.Split('.');
                    for (var i = 0; i < segments.Length - 1; i++)
                    {
                        key = segments[i];
                        if (!parent.ContainsKey(key)) break;
                        parent = parent.Get<JSONObject>(key);
                    }
                    key = segments[segments.Length - 1];
                    if (parent.ContainsKey(key))
                        return parent.Get(key);
                }
            }
            return null;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Gets an strongly typed JSON property by key
        /// </summary>
        /// <typeparam name="T">The type to convert value to (int, string etc..)</typeparam>
        /// <param name="key">Name of the property to obtain</param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public T Get<T>(string key)
        {
            object output = Get(key);
            if (output != null)
            {
                try
                {
                    return (T)Convert.ChangeType(output, typeof(T));
                }
                catch
                {
                    return JsonConvert.DeserializeObject<T>(JsonConvert.SerializeObject(output));
                }
            }
            return default(T);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Gets a strongly typed list of items from a JSON property
        /// </summary>
        /// <typeparam name="T">The type for list items (int, string etc..)</typeparam>
        /// <param name="key">Name of the property to obtain</param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public List<T> GetList<T>(string key)
        {
            return Get<List<T>>(key);
        }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Used to sign HTTP requests using Twitter OAuth authentication
    /// </summary>
    public static class OAuth
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// Signs a web request by adding signed OAuth Authorisation header
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="request">The WebRequest object to add OAuth header to</param>
        /// <param name="tokens">Twitter OAuth API Parameters</param>
        public static void Sign(WebRequest request, Tokens tokens, Parameters parameters)
        {
            parameters = parameters ?? new Parameters();

            if (request.RequestUri.Query.Contains("?"))
            {
                string query = request.RequestUri.Query.Substring(1);
                foreach (string queryParameter in query.Split('&'))
                {
                    string[] kvp = queryParameter.Split('=');
                    if (!parameters.ContainsKey(kvp[0]))
                    {
                        try { parameters.Add(kvp[0], kvp[1]); }
                        catch { }
                    }
                }
            }

            parameters.Add("oauth_version", "1.0");
            parameters.Add("oauth_nonce", GetNonce());
            parameters.Add("oauth_timestamp", GetTimeStamp());
            parameters.Add("oauth_signature_method", "HMAC-SHA1");
            parameters.Add("oauth_consumer_key", tokens.ConsumerKey);
            parameters.Add("oauth_consumer_secret", tokens.ConsumerSecret);

            if (!String.IsNullOrEmpty(tokens.AccessToken))
            {
                parameters.Add("oauth_token", tokens.AccessToken);
            }

            if (!String.IsNullOrEmpty(tokens.AccessTokenSecret))
            {
                parameters.Add("oauth_token_secret", tokens.AccessTokenSecret);
            }

            // Add signaure
            parameters.Add("oauth_signature", GetSignature(request, parameters, tokens));

            // Append OAuth header
            request.Headers.Add("Authorization", GetOAuth(parameters));

        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Twitter OAuth tokens
        /// </summary>
        public class Tokens
        {
            public string ConsumerKey { get; set; }
            public string ConsumerSecret { get; set; }
            public string AccessToken { get; set; }
            public string AccessTokenSecret { get; set; }
        }

        #region Helper Methods

        /// <summary>
        /// Get the timestamp for the signature        
        /// </summary>
        private static string GetTimeStamp()
        {
            // UNIX time of the current UTC time
            TimeSpan span = DateTime.UtcNow - new DateTime(1970, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0);
            return Convert.ToInt64(span.TotalSeconds, CultureInfo.CurrentCulture).ToString(CultureInfo.CurrentCulture);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Get a nonce
        /// </summary>
        private static string GetNonce()
        {
            return Guid.NewGuid().ToString().Replace("-", "");
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Generates the signature.
        /// @see https://dev.twitter.com/oauth/overview/creating-signatures
        /// </summary>
        private static string GetSignature(WebRequest request, Parameters parameters, Tokens tokens)
        {
            string signatureBaseString = GetSignatureBaseString(request, parameters);

            // Create our hash key 
            string key = String.Format("{0}&{1}",
                Parameters.UrlEncode(tokens.ConsumerSecret),
                Parameters.UrlEncode(tokens.AccessTokenSecret));

            // Generate the hash
            HMACSHA1 hmacsha1 = new HMACSHA1(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(key));
            byte[] signatureBytes = hmacsha1.ComputeHash(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(signatureBaseString));
            return Convert.ToBase64String(signatureBytes);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Generates the sigature base string
        /// </summary>
        private static string GetSignatureBaseString(WebRequest request, Parameters parameters)
        {

            StringBuilder parameterString = new StringBuilder();

            string[] secretParameters = new string[]  {
                                                "oauth_consumer_secret",
                                                "oauth_token_secret",
                                                "oauth_signature"
                                               };

            // Loop through an ordered set of parameters
            // excluding any secret oauth parameters
            foreach (var item in (from p in parameters
                                  where (!secretParameters.Contains(p.Key))
                                  orderby p.Key, p.Value
                                  select p))
            {
                if (parameterString.Length > 0) parameterString.Append("&");

                string value = Parameters.Parse(item.Value);

                parameterString.Append(
                    String.Format("{0}={1}",
                        Parameters.UrlEncode(item.Key),
                        Parameters.UrlEncode(value)));
            }

            // Join output 
            return String.Format("{0}&{1}&{2}",
                request.Method.ToUpper(),
                Parameters.UrlEncode(NormalizeUrl(request.RequestUri)),
                Parameters.UrlEncode(parameterString.ToString()));
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Returns a string representation of OAuth header
        /// </summary>
        private static string GetOAuth(Parameters parameters)
        {
            List<string> output = new List<string>();
            foreach (string key in new string[] {
                                                      "oauth_consumer_key",
                                                      "oauth_nonce",
                                                      "oauth_signature",
                                                      "oauth_signature_method",
                                                      "oauth_timestamp",
                                                      "oauth_token",
                                                      "oauth_version"
                                                  })
            {
                if (parameters.ContainsKey(key))
                    output.Add(String.Format("{0}=\"{1}\"", Parameters.UrlEncode(key), Parameters.UrlEncode(parameters[key])));
            }
            return String.Format("OAuth {0}", String.Join(", ", output.ToArray()));
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Normalizes the URL.
        /// </summary>
        private static string NormalizeUrl(Uri url)
        {
            return String.Format("{0}://{1}{2}", url.Scheme, url.Host, url.AbsolutePath);
        }

        #endregion
    }
}
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