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Generates domain names according to a Markov chain trained on the English dictionary and checks their availability.
#!/usr/bin/python -O
from collections import defaultdict
from random import random, choice
from string import ascii_lowercase
from subprocess import Popen, PIPE
from time import time, sleep
# get a list of words with only ASCII characters
words = [w.strip().lower() for w in open("/usr/share/dict/words").readlines()]
words = [w for w in words if all([c in ascii_lowercase for c in w])]
words = ["^" + w + "$" for w in words if w != ""]
# construct a discrete-time markov chain of n-grams
n = 5 # this is the "n" in n-grams, try adjusting this for different results
transitions = defaultdict(lambda: defaultdict(float))
for word in words:
if len(word) >= n:
transitions[""][word[:n]] += 1.0
for i in range(len(word) - n):
gram = word[i : i + n]
next = word[i + 1 : i + n + 1]
transitions[gram][next] += 1.0
# normalize the probabilities
for gram in transitions:
total = sum([transitions[gram][next] for next in transitions[gram]])
for next in transitions[gram]:
transitions[gram][next] /= total
# sample a probability mass function (dict mapping elements to probabilities)
def sample(pmf):
sample = random()
cdf = 0.0
for e in pmf:
cdf += pmf[e]
if cdf >= sample:
return e
return choice(pmf.keys())
# generate a word according to the markov chain
def gen_word():
# start with a prefix
word = sample(transitions[""])
# wait until the markov chain adds a terminator to the word
while word[-1] != "$":
# append a new letter chosen according to the markov chain
gram = word[-n:]
if gram in transitions:
word += sample(transitions[gram])[-1:]
word += choice(ascii_lowercase + "$")
# optional: allow multi-word domains
if word[-1] == "$" and random() > 0.7 and len(word) < 8:
word += sample(transitions[""])
# remove the boundary markers and return the word
return word.replace("^", "").replace("$", "")
# check whether a domain is taken (e.g., "")
# returns a bool indicating if the domain is taken or None on timeout
def check(domain):
# use the "whois" command to determine availability
process = Popen(["whois", domain], stdout=PIPE, stderr=PIPE)
end_time = time() + 4.0 # timeout after 4 seconds
while time() < end_time:
if process.poll() is not None:
return "No match for" not in
return None
# generate domain names forever
while True:
# generate a few words and pick the smallest
word = sorted([gen_word() for i in range(3)], key=lambda x: len(x))[0]
# report whether the domain is available
if check(word + ".com") == False: # could be True, False, or None
print word + ".com <-- Available!"
print word + ".com"
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