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Clojure code for a simple genetic programming system, for demonstration purposes.
(ns evolvefn) ;; Lee Spector (lspector@hampshire.edu) 20111018
;; This code defines and runs a genetic programming system on the problem
;; of finding a function that fits a particular set of [x y] pairs.
;; The aim here is mostly to demonstrate how genetic programming can be
;; implemented in Clojure simply and clearly, and several things are
;; done in somewhat inefficient and/or non-standard ways. But this should
;; provide a reasonable starting point for developing more efficient/
;; standard/capable systems.
;; Note also that this code, as written, will not always find a solution.
;; There are a variety of changes that one might make to improve its
;; problem-solving performance on the given problem.
;; We'll use data from x^2 + x + 1 (the problem from chapter 4 of
;; http://www.gp-field-guide.org.uk/, although our gp algorithm won't
;; be the same, and we'll use some different parameters as well).
;; We'll use input (x) values ranging from -1.0 to 1.0 in increments
;; of 0.1, and we'll generate the target [x y] pairs algorithmically.
;; If you want to evolve a function to fit your own data then you could
;; just paste a vector of pairs into the definition of target-data instead.
(def target-data
(map #(vector % (+ (* % %) % 1))
(range -1.0 1.0 0.1)))
;; An individual will be an expression made of functions +, -, *, and
;; pd (protected division), along with terminals x and randomly chosen
;; constants between -5.0 and 5.0. Note that for this problem the
;; presence of the constants actually makes it much harder, but that
;; may not be the case for other problems.
(defn random-function
[]
(rand-nth '(+ - * pd)))
(defn random-terminal
[]
(rand-nth (list 'x (- (rand 10) 5))))
(defn random-code
[depth]
(if (or (zero? depth)
(zero? (rand-int 2)))
(random-terminal)
(list (random-function)
(random-code (dec depth))
(random-code (dec depth)))))
;; And we have to define pd (protected division):
(defn pd
"Protected division; returns 0 if the denominator is zero."
[num denom]
(if (zero? denom)
0
(/ num denom)))
;; We can now evaluate the error of an individual by creating a function
;; built around the individual, calling it on all of the x values, and
;; adding up all of the differences between the results and the
;; corresponding y values.
(defn error
[individual]
(let [value-function (eval (list 'fn '[x] individual))]
(reduce + (map (fn [[x y]]
(Math/abs
(- (value-function x) y)))
target-data))))
;; We can now generate and evaluate random small programs, as with:
;; (let [i (random-code 3)] (println (error i) "from individual" i))
;; To help write mutation and crossover functions we'll write a utility
;; function that injects something into an expression and another that
;; extracts something from an expression.
(defn codesize [c]
(if (seq? c)
(count (flatten c))
1))
(defn inject
"Returns a copy of individual i with new inserted randomly somwhere within it (replacing something else)."
[new i]
(if (seq? i)
(if (zero? (rand-int (count (flatten i))))
new
(if (< (rand)
(/ (codesize (nth i 1))
(- (codesize i) 1)))
(list (nth i 0) (inject new (nth i 1)) (nth i 2))
(list (nth i 0) (nth i 1) (inject new (nth i 2)))))
new))
(defn extract
"Returns a random subexpression of individual i."
[i]
(if (seq? i)
(if (zero? (rand-int (count (flatten i))))
i
(if (< (rand) (/ (codesize (nth i 1))
(- (codesize i)) 1))
(extract (nth i 1))
(extract (nth i 2))))
i))
;; Now the mutate and crossover functions are easy to write:
(defn mutate
[i]
(inject (random-code 2) i))
(defn crossover
[i j]
(inject (extract j) i))
;; We can see some mutations with:
;; (let [i (random-code 2)] (println (mutate i) "from individual" i))
;; and crossovers with:
;; (let [i (random-code 2) j (random-code 2)]
;; (println (crossover i j) "from" i "and" j))
;; We'll also want a way to sort a populaty by error that doesn't require
;; lots of error re-computation:
(defn sort-by-error
[population]
(vec (map second
(sort (fn [[err1 ind1] [err2 ind2]] (< err1 err2))
(map #(vector (error %) %) population)))))
;; Finally, we'll define a function to select an individual from a sorted
;; population using tournaments of a given size.
(defn select
[population tournament-size]
(let [size (count population)]
(nth population
(apply min (repeatedly tournament-size #(rand-int size))))))
;; Now we can evolve a solution by starting with a random population and
;; repeatedly sorting, checking for a solution, and producing a new
;; population.
(defn evolve
[popsize]
(println "Starting evolution...")
(loop [generation 0
population (sort-by-error (repeatedly popsize #(random-code 2)))]
(let [best (first population)
best-error (error best)]
(println "======================")
(println "Generation:" generation)
(println "Best error:" best-error)
(println "Best program:" best)
(println " Median error:" (error (nth population
(int (/ popsize 2)))))
(println " Average program size:"
(float (/ (reduce + (map count (map flatten population)))
(count population))))
(if (< best-error 0.1) ;; good enough to count as success
(println "Success:" best)
(recur
(inc generation)
(sort-by-error
(concat
(repeatedly (* 1/2 popsize) #(mutate (select population 7)))
(repeatedly (* 1/4 popsize) #(crossover (select population 7)
(select population 7)))
(repeatedly (* 1/4 popsize) #(select population 7)))))))))
;; Run it with a population of 1000:
(evolve 1000)
;; Exercises:
;; - Remove the numerical constants and see how this affects problem-solving
;; performance.
;; - Run this on a different data set of your own choosing.
;; - Replace various hard-coded parameters with variables or arguments to
;; allow for easier experimentation with different parameter sets.
;; - Modify the code to allow one to include functions of different arities
;; (that is, that take different numbers of arguments) in the function set.
;; - Add additional functions of various arities to the function set and see
;; how this affects problem-solving performance.
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