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Code sample Java meaning C++ meaning
X x; Declares the variable x of class X. This does not creates an object Creates the object x of class X (on stack)
X x = new X(); Declares variable x and creates and assigns an object Invalid syntax
X* x; Invalid syntax Declares a pointer of type X. Same as declaring a variable in Java
X* x = new X(); Invalid syntax Declares a pointer of type X and assigns an object created (on heap)
X& x = y; Invalid syntax Declares a reference of type X and assigns another object which was previously created. A reference cannot be declared without initializing. The concept of reference does not exist in Java.
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