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Python development in Pants (tutorial)

Python development using Pants

brian wickman - @wickman


Why use Pants for Python development?

Pants makes the manipulation and distribution of hermetically sealed Python environments painless.

But why another system?


There are several solutions for package management in Python. Almost everyone is familiar with running sudo easy_install PackageXYZ. This leaves a lot to be desired. Over time, your Python installation will collect dozens of packages, become annoyingly slow or even broken, and reinstalling it will invariably break a number of the applications that you were using.

A marked improvement over the sudo easy_install model is virtualenv to isolate Python environments on a project by project basis. This is useful for development but does not directly solve any problems related to deployment, whether it be to a production environment or to your peers. It is also challenging to explain to a Python non-expert.

A different solution altogether, zc.buildout attempts to provide a framework and recipes for many common development environments. It has arguably gone the farthest for automating environment reproducibility amongst the popular tools, but shares the same complexity problems as all the other abovementioned solutions.

Most solutions leave deployment as an afterthought. Why not make the development and deployment environments the same by taking the environment along with you?

Pants and PEX

The lingua franca of Pants is the PEX file (PEX itself does not stand for anything in particular, though in spirit you can think of it as a "Python EXecutable".)

PEX files are single-file lightweight virtual Python environments.

The only difference is no virtualenv setup instructions or pip install foo bar baz. PEX files are self-bootstrapping Python environments with no strings attached and no side-effects. Just a simple mechanism that unifies both your development and your deployment.

Getting started

First it is necessary to install Pants. See installation instructions.

TL;DR - 'Hello world!' with Pants Python

$ git clone git://
$ cd commons
$ mkdir -p src/python/twitter/my_project
$ vi src/python/twitter/my_project/BUILD


  name = 'hello_world',
  source = ''
$ vi src/python/twitter/my_project/


print('Hello world!')

To run directly:

$ ./pants py src/python/twitter/my_project:hello_world
Build operating on target: PythonBinary(src/python/twitter/my_project/BUILD:hello_world)
Hello world!

To build:

$ ./pants src/python/twitter/my_project:hello_world
Build operating on targets: OrderedSet([PythonBinary(src/python/twitter/my_project/BUILD:hello_world)])
Building PythonBinary PythonBinary(src/python/twitter/my_project/BUILD:hello_world):
Wrote /Users/wickman/clients/science-py-csl/dist/hello_world.pex

and run separately:

$ dist/hello_world.pex
Hello world!

NOTE: The first time you run ./pants will likely take a ridiculous amount of time as Pants bootstraps itself inside your directory. Note, it never installs anything in a global site-packages.

Describing Python environments in Pants

Build dependencies in Pants are managed with BUILD files that are co-located with your source. These files are used to describe the following:

  1. libraries: bundles of sources and resources, that may or may not also depend on other libraries
  2. binaries: a single source (the executable) and libraries it depends upon
  3. requirements: external dependencies as resolved by dependency managers e.g. pypi in Python or ivy on the JVM

The main point of Pants is to take these BUILD files and do something useful with them.

BUILD file format

These descriptions are stored in files named BUILD and colocated near the binaries/libraries they describe. Let's take for example the src/python/twitter/tutorial subtree in commons:

$ ls -lR src/python/twitter/tutorial/
total 16
-rw-r--r--  1 wickman  wheel  137 Apr  9 22:59 BUILD
-rw-r--r--  1 wickman  wheel  118 Apr  9 22:59

Let's take a look at the BUILD file in src/python/twitter/tutorial/BUILD:

  name = "hello_world",
  source = "",
  dependencies = [

This BUILD file names one target: hello_world, which is a python_binary target. The hello_world target contains one source file, and depends upon one other target, the format of which will be described shortly.

It should be noted that sources are relative to the location of the BUILD file itself, e.g. inside of src/python/twitter/tutorial/BUILD actually refers to src/python/twitter/tutorial/

from twitter.common import app

def main():
  print('Hello world!')


Dependencies, on the other hand, are relative to the source root of the repository which is defined by the BUILD file that sits next to the pants command:

# Define the repository layout

source_root('src/antlr', doc, page, python_antlr_library)
source_root('src/java', annotation_processor, doc, jvm_binary, java_library, page)
source_root('src/protobuf', doc, java_protobuf_library, page)
source_root('src/python', doc, page, python_binary, python_library)
source_root('src/scala', doc, jvm_binary, page, scala_library)
source_root('src/thrift', doc, java_thrift_library, page, python_thrift_library)

source_root('tests/java', doc, java_library, java_tests, page)
source_root('tests/python', doc, page, python_library, python_tests, python_test_suite)
source_root('tests/scala', doc, page, scala_library, scala_tests)

This file can be tailored to map to any source root structure such as Maven style, Twitter style (as described above) or something more flat such as a project. This however is an advanced topic that is not covered in this document.

Addressing targets

Within the src/python/twitter/tutorial/BUILD, only one target is defined, specifically hello_world. This target is addressed by src/python/twitter/tutorial:hello_world which means the target hello_world within src/python/twitter/tutorial/BUILD. In general, targets take the form <path>:<target name> with the special cases:

  1. in the case of path/to/directory/BUILD:target, the BUILD component may be elided and instead path/to/directory:target may be used
  2. path/to/directory is short form for path/to/directory:directory, so src/python/twitter/common/app is short form for src/python/twitter/common/app/BUILD:app

src/python/twitter/tutorial/BUILD referenced pants('src/python/twitter/common/app') in its dependencies. The pants() keyword is akin to a "pointer dereference" for an address. It will point to whatever target is described at that address, in this case a python_library target:


  name = "app",
  sources = globs('*.py'),
  dependencies = [

which in turn includes even more dependencies. The job of Pants is to manage the transitive closure of all these dependencies and manipulate collections of these targets for you.

Python target types

BUILD files themselves are just Python. The only thing magical is that the statement from twitter.pants import * has been autoinjected. This provides a number of Python-specific targets such as:

  1. python_library
  2. python_binary
  3. python_requirement
  4. python_thrift_library

and a whole host of other targets including Java, Scala, Python, Markdown, the universal pants target and so forth. See src/python/twitter/pants/ for a comprehensive list of targets.


A python_library target has a name, zero or more source files, zero or more resource files, and zero or more dependencies. These dependencies may include other python_library-like targets (python_library, python_thrift_library, python_antlr_library and so forth) or python_requirement targets.


A python_binary target is almost identical to a python_library target except instead of sources, it takes one of two possible parameters:

  1. source: The source file that should be executed within the "library" otherwise defined by python_binary
  2. entry_point: The entry point that should be executed within the "library" otherwise defined by python_binary. Entry points take the format of pkg_resources.EntryPoint, which is something akin to which means run the function pointed by my.attr inside the module some.module inside the environment. The :my.attr component can be omitted and the module is executed directly (presuming it has a


A python_requirement target describes an external dependency as understood by easy_install or pip. It takes only a single non-keyword argument of the Requirement-style string, e.g.


This will resolve the dependency and its transitive closure, for example django-celery pulls down the following dependencies: celery>=2.5.1, django-picklefield>=0.2.0, ordereddict, python-dateutil, kombu>=2.1.1,<3.0, anyjson>=0.3.1, importlib, and amqplib>=1.0.

Pants takes care of handling these dependencies for you. It will never install anything globally. Instead it will build the dependency and cache it in .pants.d and assemble them a la carte into an execution environment.


A python_thrift_library target takes the same arguments as python_library arguments, except that files described in sources must be thrift files. If your library or binary depends upon this target type, Python bindings will be autogenerated and included within your environment.

Building your first PEX

Now you're ready to build your first PEX file (technically you already have, by building Pants itself.) By default if you specify ./pants <target>, it assumes you mean ./pants build <target> and does precisely that:

$ PANTS_VERBOSE=1 ./pants src/python/twitter/tutorial:hello_world
Build operating on targets: OrderedSet([PythonBinary(src/python/twitter/tutorial/BUILD:hello_world)])
  Resolver: Calling environment super => 0.046ms
Building PythonBinary PythonBinary(src/python/twitter/tutorial/BUILD:hello_world):
Building PythonBinary PythonBinary(src/python/twitter/tutorial/BUILD:hello_world):
  Dumping library: PythonLibrary(src/python/twitter/common/app/BUILD:app) [relative module: ]
  Dumping library: PythonLibrary(src/python/twitter/common/dirutil/BUILD:dirutil) [relative module: ]
  Dumping library: PythonLibrary(src/python/twitter/common/lang/BUILD:lang) [relative module: ]
  Dumping library: PythonLibrary(src/python/twitter/common/options/BUILD:options) [relative module: ]
  Dumping library: PythonLibrary(src/python/twitter/common/util/BUILD:util) [relative module: ]
  Dumping library: PythonLibrary(src/python/twitter/common/app/modules/BUILD:modules) [relative module: ]
  Resolver: Calling environment super => 0.016ms
  Dumping binary: twitter/tutorial/
Wrote /private/tmp/wickman-commons/dist/hello_world.pex

You will see that despite specifying just one dependency, the transitive closure of hello_world pulled in all of src/python/twitter/common/app and its direct descendants. That's because those library targets depended upon other library targets, than in turn depending on even more. At the end of the day, we bundle up the closed set of all dependencies and bundle them into hello_world.pex.

Since it uses the framework, we know we can fire it up and poke around with --help:

$ dist/hello_world.pex --help
  -h, --help, --short-help
                        show this help message and exit.
  --long-help           show options from all registered modules, not just the
                        __main__ module.

If we specify --long-help, we can see the help of transitively included modules, e.g. itself:

$ dist/hello_world.pex --long-help
  -h, --help, --short-help
                        show this help message and exit.
  --long-help           show options from all registered modules, not just the
                        __main__ module.

  From module
    --app_daemonize     Daemonize this application. [default: False]
                        Dump the profiling output to a binary profiling
                        format. [default: None]
                        Direct this app's stderr to this file if daemonized.
                        [default: /dev/null]
    --app_debug         Print extra debugging information during application
                        initialization. [default: False]
                        Direct this app's stdout to this file if daemonized .
                        [default: /dev/null]
    --app_profiling     Run profiler on the code while it runs.  Note this can
                        cause slowdowns. [default: False]
                        Ignore default arguments from the rc file. [default:
                        The pidfile to use if --app_daemonize is specified.
                        [default: None]

Or we can simply execute it as intended:

$ dist/hello_world.pex
Hello world!

Environment manipulation with pants py

We've only discussed so far the "pants build" command. There's also a dedicated "py" command that allows you to manipulate the environments described by python_binary and python_library targets, such as drop into an interpreter with the environment set up for you.

pants py semantics

The default behavior of pants py <target> is the following:

  1. For python_binary targets, build the environment and execute the target
  2. For one or more python_library targets, build the environment that is the transitive closure of all targets and drop into an interpreter.
  3. For a combination of python_binary and python_library targets, build the transitive closure of all targets and execute the first binary target.

external dependencies

Let's take src/python/twitter/tutorial/BUILD and split out the dependencies from our hello_world target into hello_world_lib and add dependencies upon Tornado and psutil.

  name = "hello_world",
  source = "",
  dependencies = [

  name = "hello_world_lib",
  dependencies = [

This uses the python_requirement target which can refer to any string in pkg_resources.Requirement format as recognized by tools such as easy_install and pip as described above.

Now that we've created a library-only target src/python/twitter/tutorial:hello_world_lib, let's drop into it using pants py with verbosity turned on so that we can see what's going on in the background:

$ PANTS_VERBOSE=1 ./pants py src/python/twitter/tutorial:hello_world_lib
Build operating on target: PythonLibrary(src/python/twitter/tutorial/BUILD:hello_world_lib)
  Resolver: Calling environment super => 0.019ms
Building PythonBinary PythonLibrary(src/python/twitter/tutorial/BUILD:hello_world_lib):
  Dumping library: PythonLibrary(src/python/twitter/tutorial/BUILD:hello_world_lib) [relative module: ]
  Dumping library: PythonLibrary(src/python/twitter/common/app/BUILD:app) [relative module: ]
  Dumping library: PythonLibrary(src/python/twitter/common/dirutil/BUILD:dirutil) [relative module: ]
  Dumping library: PythonLibrary(src/python/twitter/common/lang/BUILD:lang) [relative module: ]
  Dumping library: PythonLibrary(src/python/twitter/common/options/BUILD:options) [relative module: ]
  Dumping library: PythonLibrary(src/python/twitter/common/util/BUILD:util) [relative module: ]
  Dumping library: PythonLibrary(src/python/twitter/common/app/modules/BUILD:modules) [relative module: ]
  Dumping requirement: tornado
  Dumping requirement: psutil
  Resolver: Calling environment super => 0.029ms
  Resolver: Activating cache /private/tmp/wickman-commons/3rdparty/python => 356.432ms
  Resolver: Resolved tornado => 357.219ms
  Resolver: Activating cache /private/tmp/wickman-commons/.pants.d/.python.install.cache => 41.117ms
  Resolver: Fetching psutil => 10144.264ms
  Resolver: Building psutil => 1794.474ms
  Resolver: Distilling psutil => 224.896ms
  Resolver: Constructing distribution psutil => 2.855ms
  Resolver: Resolved psutil => 12210.066ms
  Dumping distribution: .../tornado-2.2-py2.6.egg
  Dumping distribution: .../psutil-0.4.1-py2.6-macosx-10.4-x86_64.egg
Python 2.6.7 (r267:88850, Aug 31 2011, 15:49:05)
[GCC 4.2.1 (Apple Inc. build 5664)] on darwin
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.

In the background, pants used cached version of tornado but fetched psutil from pypi and any necessary transitive dependencies (none in this case) and built a platform-specific version for us.

You can convince yourself that the environment contains all the dependencies by inspecting sys.path and importing libraries as you desire:

>>> import psutil
>>> help(psutil)
>>> from twitter.common import app
>>> help(app)

It should be stressed that dependencies built by Pants are never installed globally. These dependencies only exist for the duration of the Python interpreter forked by Pants.

Running an application using pants py

Let us turn our into a basic top application using tornado:

from twitter.common import app

import psutil
import tornado.ioloop
import tornado.web

class MainHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):
  def get(self):
    self.write('<pre>Running pids:\n%s</pre>' % '\n'.join(map(str, psutil.get_pid_list())))

def main():
  application = tornado.web.Application([
    (r"/", MainHandler)


We have now split our application into two parts: the hello_world binary target and the hello_world_lib library target. If we run pants py src/python/twitter/tutorial:hello_world_lib, the default behavior is to drop into an interpreter.

If we run pants py src/python/twitter/tutorial:hello_world, the default behavior is to run the binary target pointed to by hello_world:

$ ./pants py src/python/twitter/tutorial:hello_world

Then point your browser to localhost:8888

pants py --pex

There is also a --pex option to pants py that allows you to build a PEX file from a union of python_library targets that does not necessarily have a python_binary target defined for it. Since there is no entry point specified, the resulting .pex file just behaves like a Python interpreter, but with the sys.path bootstrapped for you:

$ ./pants py --pex src/python/twitter/tutorial:hello_world_lib
Build operating on target: PythonLibrary(src/python/twitter/tutorial/BUILD:hello_world_lib)
Wrote /private/tmp/wickman-commons/dist/hello_world_lib.pex

$ ls -la dist/hello_world_lib.pex
-rwxr-xr-x  1 wickman  wheel  1404174 Apr 10 13:00 dist/hello_world_lib.pex

Now if you use dist/hello_world_lib.pex, since it has no entry point, it will drop you into an interpreter:

$ dist/hello_world_lib.pex
Python 2.6.7 (r267:88850, Aug 31 2011, 15:49:05)
[GCC 4.2.1 (Apple Inc. build 5664)] on darwin
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> import tornado

As mentioned before, it's like a single-file lightweight alternative to a virtualenv. We can even use it to run our application:

$ dist/hello_world_lib.pex src/python/twitter/tutorial/

This can be an incredibly powerful and lightweight way to manage and deploy virtual environments without using virtualenv.

PEX file as interpreter

As mentioned above, PEX files without default entry points behave like Python interpreters that carry their dependencies with them. For example, let's create a target that provides a Fabric dependency within src/python/twitter/tutorial/BUILD:

  name = 'fabric',
  dependencies = [

And let's build a fabric PEX file:

$ ./pants py --pex src/python/twitter/tutorial:fabric
Build operating on target: PythonLibrary(src/python/twitter/tutorial/BUILD:fabric)
Wrote /private/tmp/wickman-commons/dist/fabric.pex

By default it does nothing more than drop us into an interpreter:

$ dist/fabric.pex
Python 2.6.7 (r267:88850, Aug 31 2011, 15:49:05)
[GCC 4.2.1 (Apple Inc. build 5664)] on darwin
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.

But suppose we have a local script that depends upon Fabric,

from fabric.api import *

def main():
  local('echo hello world')

if __name__ == '__main__':

We can now use fabric.pex as if it were a Python interpreter but with fabric available in its environment. Note that fabric has never been installed globally in any site-packages anywhere. It is just bundled inside of fabric.pex:

$ dist/fabric.pex
[localhost] local: echo hello world
hello world

python_binary entry_point

An advanced feature of python_binary targets, you may in addition specify direct entry points into PEX files rather than a source file. For example, if we wanted to build an a la carte fab wrapper for fabric:

python_binary(name = "fab",
  entry_point = "fabric.main:main",
  dependencies = [

We build:

$ ./pants src/python/twitter/tutorial:fab
Build operating on targets: OrderedSet([PythonBinary(src/python/twitter/tutorial/BUILD:fab)])
Building PythonBinary PythonBinary(src/python/twitter/tutorial/BUILD:fab):
Wrote /private/tmp/wickman-commons/dist/fab.pex

And now dist/fab.pex behaves like a standalone fab binary:

$ dist/fab.pex -h
Usage: fab [options] <command>[:arg1,arg2=val2,host=foo,hosts='h1;h2',...] ...

  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -d NAME, --display=NAME
                        print detailed info about command NAME
  -F FORMAT, --list-format=FORMAT
                        formats --list, choices: short, normal, nested
  -l, --list            print list of possible commands and exit
  --set=KEY=VALUE,...   comma separated KEY=VALUE pairs to set Fab env vars
  --shortlist           alias for -F short --list
  -V, --version         show program's version number and exit
  -a, --no_agent        don't use the running SSH agent
  -A, --forward-agent   forward local agent to remote end
  --abort-on-prompts    abort instead of prompting (for password, host, etc)


Pants also has excellent support for JVM-based builds and can do similar things like resolving external JARs and packaging them as standalone environments with default entry points.

Manipulating PEX behavior with environment variables

Given a PEX file, it is possible to alter its default behavior during invocation.


If you have a PEX file with a prescribed executable source or entry_point specified, it may still occasionally be useful to drop into an interpreter with the environment bootstrapped. If you set PEX_INTERPRETER=1 in your environment, the PEX bootstrapper will skip any execution and instead launch an interactive interpreter session.


If your environment is failing to bootstrap or simply bootstrapping very slowly, it can be useful to set PEX_VERBOSE=1 in your environment to get debugging output printed to the console. Debugging output includes:

  1. Fetched dependencies
  2. Built dependencies
  3. Activated dependencies
  4. Packages scrubbed out of sys.path
  5. The sys.path used to launch the interpreter


If you have a PEX file without a prescribed entry point, or want to change the entry_point for the duration of a single invocation, you can set PEX_MODULE=entry_point using the same format as described in the python_binary Pants target.

This can be a useful tool for bundling up a number of packages together and being able to use a single file to execute scripts from each of them.

Another common pattern is to link pytest into your PEX file, and run PEX_MODULE=pytest my_pex.pex tests/*.py to run your test suite in its isolated environment.


There is nascent support for performing code coverage within PEX files by setting PEX_COVERAGE=<suffix>. By default the coverage files will be written into the current working directory with the file pattern .coverage.<suffix>. This requires that the coverage Python module has been linked into your PEX.

You can then combine the coverage files by running PEX_MODULE=coverage my_pex.pex .coverage.suffix* and run a report using PEX_MODULE=coverage my_pex.pex report. Since PEX files are just zip files, coverage is able to understand and extract source and line numbers from them in order to produce coverage reports.

How PEX files work

the utility of zipimport and

As an aside, in Python, you may not know that you can import code from directories:

$ mkdir -p foo
$ touch foo/
$ echo "print 'spam'" > foo/
$ python -c 'import'

All that is necessary is the presence of to signal to the importer that we are dealing with a package. Similarly, a directory can be made "executable":

$ echo "print 'i like flowers'" > foo/
$ python foo
i like flowers

And because the zipimport module now provides a default import hook for Pythons >= 2.4, if the Python import framework sees a zip file, with the inclusion of a proper, it can be treated similarly to a directory. But since a directory can be executable, if we just drop a into a zip file, it suddenly becomes executable:

$ pushd foo && zip /tmp/ && popd
/tmp/foo /tmp
  adding: (stored 0%)
$ python
i like flowers

And since zip files don't actually start until the zip magic number, you can embed arbitrary strings at the beginning of them and they're still valid zips. Hence simple PEX files are born:

$ echo '#!/usr/bin/env python2.6' > flower.pex && cat >> flower.pex
$ chmod +x flower.pex
$ ./flower.pex
i like flowers

Remember pants.pex?

$ unzip -l pants.pex | tail -2
warning [pants.pex]:  25 extra bytes at beginning or within zipfile
  (attempting to process anyway)
 --------                   -------
  7900812                   543 files

$ head -c 25 pants.pex
#!/usr/bin/env python2.6


The in a real PEX file is somewhat special:

import os
import sys

__entry_point__ = None
if '__file__' in locals() and __file__ is not None:
  __entry_point__ = os.path.dirname(__file__)
elif '__loader__' in locals():
  from pkgutil import ImpLoader
  if hasattr(__loader__, 'archive'):
    __entry_point__ = __loader__.archive
  elif isinstance(__loader__, ImpLoader):
    __entry_point__ = os.path.dirname(__loader__.get_filename())

if __entry_point__ is None:
  sys.stderr.write('Could not launch python executable!\n')

sys.path.insert(0, os.path.join(__entry_point__, '.bootstrap'))

from twitter.common.python.importer import monkeypatch
del monkeypatch

from twitter.common.python.pex import PEX

PEX is just a class that manages requirements (often embedded within PEX files as egg distributions in the .deps directory) and autoimports them into the sys.path, then executes a prescribed entry point.

If you read the code closely, you'll notice that it relies upon monkeypatching zipimport. Inside the twitter.common.python library we've provided a recursive zip importer derived from Google's pure Python zipimport module that allows for depending upon eggs within eggs or zips (and so forth) so that PEX files need not extract egg dependencies to disk a priori. This even extends to C extensions (.so and .dylib files) which are written to disk long enough to be dlopened before being unlinked.

Strictly speaking this monkeypatching is not necessary and we may consider making that optional.

Advanced Pants/PEX features

TODO: converting python_library targets to eggs

TODO: auto dependency resolution from within PEX files

TODO: dynamically self-updating PEX files

TODO: tailoring your dependency resolution environment with pants.ini, including local cheeseshop mirrors

TODO: multi-interpreter / multi-platform support with pants.multi / pants goal setup

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Thanks for the fantastic tutorial. Is there a way to run all tests under a directory?

I was guessing something like:

./pants src/path/to/a/package:...

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mlhamel commented Jun 26, 2013

It is nice ! I found this compleltely randomly and i liked it, is it still active ?

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The Hello World didn't work for me!

$ ./pants py src/python/twitter/my_project:hello_world
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/", line 162, in _run_module_as_main
"main", fname, loader, pkg_name)
File "/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/", line 72, in _run_code
exec code in run_globals
File "/private/var/folders/vb/tfrkpcn139q60dg8pc2wnlrr0000gn/T/tmpMxWdUo/", line 23, in
from twitter.common.python.importer import monkeypatch
File "/private/var/folders/vb/tfrkpcn139q60dg8pc2wnlrr0000gn/T/tmpMxWdUo/.bootstrap/twitter/", line 1, in
ImportError: No module named pkg_resources

$ ./pants src/python/twitter/my_project:hello_world
Build operating on targets: OrderedSet([PythonBinary(src/python/twitter/my_project/BUILD:hello_world)])
Building PythonBinary PythonBinary(src/python/twitter/my_project/BUILD:hello_world):
Wrote /commons/dist/hello_world.pex

$ dist/hello_world.pex
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/", line 162, in _run_module_as_main
"main", fname, loader, pkg_name)
File "/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/", line 72, in _run_code
exec code in run_globals
File "dist/hello_world.pex/", line 23, in
File "/commons/dist/hello_world.pex/.bootstrap/twitter/", line 1, in
ImportError: No module named pkg_resources

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skyl commented Jul 17, 2014

dependencies passed to Target constructors must be strings.

I guess this is too old to use:

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