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Raspberry Pi 3 with Mosquitto, Node-RED, InfluxDB, Grafana and Nginx (as a reverse proxy)

Raspberry Pi 3 IoT Home Server

Presentation

http://tinkerman.cat/rpi3_iot_server.pdf (Catalan)

Get the latest image and flash the SD card

  • download the latest image
$ wget --output-document=raspbian.img.zip  https://downloads.raspberrypi.org/raspbian_lite_latest
  • locate the destination volume
$ unzip -p raspbian.img.zip | sudo dd of=/dev/mmcblk0 bs=4M conv=fsync
  • mount the SD card
  • windows users might want to install http://www.paragon-drivers.com/extfs-windows/ to read/write EXT4 partitions
  • locate the boot and rootfs partitions (on bare Windows machines only boot partition is visible)
  • enable ssh by default:
$ cd /media/$USER/boot
$ touch ssh
  • configure the wifi connection (optional):
$ cd /media/$USER/boot
$ sudo vi wpa_supplicant.conf

country=ES
ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=netdev
update_config=1

network={
    ssid="<ssid1>"
    psk="<pass1>"
    id_str="Home"
    priority=1
}

# More than one network configuration can be added
# This is an open network (no pass)
network={
    ssid="<ssid2>"
    key_mgmt=NONE
    id_str="Open"
    priority=2
}

  • configure the network interfaces (optional, linux host only):
$ cd /media/$USER/rootfs/etc/network
$ sudo vi interfaces

auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static
    address 192.168.1.13
    gateway 192.168.1.1
    dns-nameservers 8.8.8.8

auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet dhcp
    wpa-roam /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
    address 192.168.1.200/24
#    gateway 192.168.1.1
#    dns-nameservers 8.8.8.8
  • unmount the boot and rootfs partitions
  • remove the SD card from your computer
  • insert it into the RPi
  • boot the RPi and wait 90 seconds
  • then connect your computer and the RPi with an ethernet cable
  • set your computer to use an IP in the range 192.168.1.0/24 (not the 15!)
  • log to the RPi using user pi, password raspberry:
$ ssh -o IdentitiesOnly=yes pi@192.168.1.200
  • from now on you can work using the eth or you can findout the IP of the wlan0 interface:
$ ifconfig wlan0
  • if you are connected via wlan0, you might want to disable eth0 temporarily:
$ sudo ifdown eth0

First steps

  • Check connectivity:
$ ping google.com
  • Delete routes if necessary:
$ sudo route del -net 0.0.0.0 gw 192.168.1.1 netmask 0.0.0.0 dev eth0
  • Upgrade packages:
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get upgrade
  • Update VIM editor (personal preference):
$ sudo apt-get install vim
$ sudo select-editor
  • Configure options (enable I2C, SSH, expand filesystem, change hostname, localisation options, do not reboot yet)
$ sudo raspi-config
  • Make us of TMPFS (strongly recommended)
$sudo vi /etc/fstab

(...)
tmpfs    /tmp               tmpfs   defaults,noatime,nosuid,size=30m                    0 0
tmpfs    /var/tmp           tmpfs   defaults,noatime,nosuid,size=30m                    0 0
tmpfs    /var/log           tmpfs   defaults,noatime,nosuid,mode=0755,size=30m          0 0
tmpfs    /var/spool/mqueue  tmpfs   defaults,noatime,nosuid,mode=0700,gid=1001,size=30m 0 0
  • Create a new user (recommended)
$ sudo rm /etc/ssh/ssh_host* 
$ sudo ssh-keygen -A
$ sudo adduser xose
$ sudo adduser xose sudo
$ sudo reboot
...
$ sudo deluser --remove-home pi
  • ...or change the pass for the pi user and reboot:
$ passwd
$ sudo reboot

Mosquitto

  • Add the repository and install Mosquitto:
$ wget http://repo.mosquitto.org/debian/mosquitto-repo.gpg.key
$ sudo apt-key add mosquitto-repo.gpg.key
$ cd /etc/apt/sources.list.d/
$ sudo wget http://repo.mosquitto.org/debian/mosquitto-stretch.list
$ cd
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install mosquitto mosquitto-clients
  • Secure the connection:
$ sudo mosquitto_passwd -c /etc/mosquitto/passwd <user>
$ sudo vi /etc/mosquitto/conf.d/default.conf

user mosquitto
allow_anonymous false
password_file /etc/mosquitto/passwd
  • Use bonjour/zeroconf to advertise the service (optional):
$ sudo apt-get install avahi-utils
$ sudo vi /etc/avahi/services/mosquitto.service

<?xml version="1.0" standalone='no'?><!--*-nxml-*-->
<!DOCTYPE service-group SYSTEM "avahi-service.dtd">
<service-group>
 <name replace-wildcards="yes">Mosquitto MQTT server on %h</name>
  <service>
   <type>_mqtt._tcp</type>
   <port>1883</port>
  </service>
</service-group>
  • Autostart service
$ sudo systemctl stop mosquitto
$ sudo update-rc.d mosquitto remove
$ sudo rm /etc/init.d/mosquitto
$ sudo vi /etc/systemd/system/mosquitto.service

[Unit]
Description=Mosquitto MQTT Broker daemon  
ConditionPathExists=/etc/mosquitto/mosquitto.conf  
AfteR=network.target
Requires=network.target

[Service]
Type=simple  
ExecStart=/usr/sbin/mosquitto -c /etc/mosquitto/mosquitto.conf   
Restart=always

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target  

$ sudo systemctl daemon-reload
$ sudo systemctl enable mosquitto
$ sudo systemctl start mosquitto.service

InfluxDB

  • Add the repository
$ curl -sL https://repos.influxdata.com/influxdb.key | sudo apt-key add -
$ source /etc/os-release
$ test $VERSION_ID = "7" && echo "deb https://repos.influxdata.com/debian wheezy stable" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/influxdb.list
$ test $VERSION_ID = "8" && echo "deb https://repos.influxdata.com/debian jessie stable" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/influxdb.list
$ test $VERSION_ID = "9" && echo "deb https://repos.influxdata.com/debian stretch stable" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/influxdb.list
$ sudo apt-get update
  • Install
$ sudo apt-get install libfontconfig1
$ sudo apt-get -f install
$ sudo apt-get install influxdb
  • Start service
$ sudo service influxdb start
  • Configure console to use proper timestamps
$ vi ~/.bash_aliases

(...)
alias idb='influx -precision "rfc3339"'
  • Install Telegraf (optional, system metrics on InfluxDB)
$ sudo apt-get install telegraf
$ sudo service telegraf start
  • Check the database
$ source ~/.bash_aliases
$ idb
> SHOW DATABASES
name: databases
name
----
_internal
telegraf
> USE telegraf
Using database telegraf
> SHOW MEASUREMENTS
name: measurements
name
----
cpu
disk
diskio
kernel
mem
processes
swap
system
> SELECT * FROM disk;
name: disk
time                 device    free        fstype host        inodes_free inodes_total inodes_used mode path  total       used       used_percent
----                 ------    ----        ------ ----        ----------- ------------ ----------- ---- ----  -----       ----       ------------
2018-02-15T16:00:00Z mmcblk0p1 21017600    vfat   raspberrypi 0           0            0           rw   /boot 42856960    21839360   50.95872409055612
2018-02-15T16:00:00Z root      28520734720 ext4   raspberrypi 1811742     1881152      69410       rw   /     31349534720 1522057216 5.066297497391156
(...)
  • Define retention policies (example)
> USE telegraf
> ALTER RETENTION POLICY "autogen" ON "telegraf" DURATION 4w REPLICATION 1 DEFAULT;
> CREATE RETENTION POLICY "forever" ON "telegraf" DURATION INF REPLICATION 1;
> SHOW RETENTION POLICIES;
name    duration shardGroupDuration replicaN default
----    -------- ------------------ -------- -------
autogen 672h0m0s 168h0m0s           1        true
forever 0s       168h0m0s           1        false
  • Define continuous queries (example)
> CREATE CONTINUOUS QUERY "disk_free_1h" ON "telegraf" RESAMPLE EVERY 1h BEGIN SELECT min("free") INTO "forever"."disk" FROM "autogen"."disk" WHERE device = 'root' GROUP BY time(1h) END
  • Dump RPi temperature to InfluxDB (optional)
$ sudo apt-get install bc
$ cd 
$ mkdir -p bin
$ vi bin/cpu_temp

#!/bin/bash
cpu=$(</sys/class/thermal/thermal_zone0/temp)
hostname=`hostname`
database=telegraf
cpu=`echo "scale=2;$cpu / 1000" | bc`
curl -i -XPOST "http://localhost:8086/write?db=$database" --data-binary "temperature,host=$hostname,name=cpu,units=celsius value=$cpu"

$ chmod +x local/cpu_temp
$ crontab -e

*/1 * * * * $HOME/bin/cpu_temp

Node-RED

  • Install & start
bash <(curl -sL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/node-red/raspbian-deb-package/master/resources/update-nodejs-and-nodered)
node-red-start
  • Security (uncomment adminAuth part in settings.js replacing username and password)
cd ~/.node-red
sudo npm install -g node-red-admin
node-red-admin hash-pw
vi settings.js
  • Using PM2 to monitor the service (recommended, notice the messages):
sudo systemctl disable nodered.service
sudo npm install -g pm2
pm2 start node-red
pm2 save
pm2 startup

Grafana

cd ~
wget --output-document=grafana.deb https://github.com/fg2it/grafana-on-raspberry/releases/download/v4.6.2/grafana_4.6.2_armhf.deb
sudo dpkg -i grafana.deb
sudo apt-get install -f
  • Install plugins (optional)
sudo grafana-cli plugins install grafana-clock-panel
sudo grafana-cli plugins install natel-discrete-panel
sudo grafana-cli plugins install briangann-gauge-panel
sudo grafana-cli plugins install vonage-status-panel
sudo grafana-cli plugins install neocat-cal-heatmap-panel
#sudo grafana-cli plugins install natel-plotly-panel
  • Enable service (so it autostarts)
sudo systemctl enable grafana-server
  • Start service
sudo systemctl start grafana-server
  • Open the web interface (http://192.168.1.200:3000) and configure a data source (local InfluxDB database telegraf) and a dashboard (example).

Nginx

  • Install Nginx
$ sudo usermod -a -G video $USER
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install nginx
  • Install certbot for SSL certificiates (strongly recommended)
$ echo "deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian jessie-backports main contrib" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/backports.list
$ sudo apt-key adv --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys 8B48AD6246925553
$ sudo apt-key adv --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys 7638D0442B90D010
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install certbot -t jessie-backports
  • Install certificates (recommended)
$ sudo certbot certonly --webroot -w /var/www/html -d <domain_name>
$ sudo certbot certificates
  • Autorenew certificates (recommended)
$ sudo crontab -e

@weekly /usr/bin/certbot renew --quiet --no-self-upgrade -w /var/www/html/
@daily service nginx reload
  • Configure service
$ sudo vi /etc/nginx/sites-available/proxy

server {

    # general server parameters 
    listen                      443;
    server_name                 santpol.tinkerman.cat;
    access_log                  /var/log/nginx/<domain_name>.access.log;
    #error_log                   /var/log/nginx/error.log debug;

    # SSL configuration
    ssl                         on;
    ssl_certificate             /etc/letsencrypt/live/<domain_name>/fullchain.pem;
    ssl_certificate_key         /etc/letsencrypt/live/<domain_name>/privkey.pem;
    ssl_session_cache           builtin:1000  shared:SSL:10m;
    ssl_protocols               TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
    ssl_ciphers                 HIGH:!aNULL:!eNULL:!EXPORT:!CAMELLIA:!DES:!MD5:!PSK:!RC4;
    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers   on;
    
    location /node-red/ {

      # header pass through configuration
      proxy_set_header        Host $host;      
      proxy_set_header        X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
      proxy_set_header        X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
      proxy_set_header        X-Forwarded-Proto $scheme;

      # extra debug headers      
      add_header              X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;

      # actual proxying configuration
      proxy_ssl_session_reuse on;
      proxy_pass              http://localhost:1880/;
      proxy_redirect          default;
      proxy_read_timeout      90;
   
    }
    
    location /grafana/ {

      # header pass through configuration
      proxy_set_header        Host $host;      
      proxy_set_header        X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
      proxy_set_header        X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
      proxy_set_header        X-Forwarded-Proto $scheme;

      # extra debug headers      
      add_header              X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;

      # actual proxying configuration
      proxy_ssl_session_reuse on;
      proxy_pass              http://localhost:3000/;
      proxy_redirect          default;
      proxy_read_timeout      90;

    }

}

$ sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/proxy /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/proxy
  • Check and reload changes
$ sudo nginx -t
$ sudo service nginx reload
  • Use bonjour/zeroconf to advertise the service (optional):
$ sudo vi /etc/avahi/services/nginx.service

<?xml version="1.0" standalone='no'?><!--*-nxml-*-->
<!DOCTYPE service-group SYSTEM "avahi-service.dtd">
<service-group>
 <name replace-wildcards="yes">Nginx server on %h</name>
  <service>
   <type>_http._tcp</type>
   <port>80</port>
  </service>
  <service>
   <type>_https._tcp</type>
   <port>443</port>
  </service>
</service-group>
@miyagui

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commented Nov 17, 2018

Compelling guide, tested and in working order as of today with the latest Raspbian stretch.

Some notes though:

Change if you added temps to influxdb through ~/bin/cpu_temp

chmod +x bin/cpu_temp instead of chmod +x local/cpu_temp

On the nginx template. Make sure servername is changed to <domain_name>
Also make sure you create a folder for /var/logs or you'd get an nginx template error.

# mkdir /var/log/nginx

Finally, about Grafana it now has it's own official release, on my raspberry pi 3b I used the hf version over the arm64 and worked as usual.

Also while we are working on nginx and only after having Grafana installed. If you want to serve the grafana webapp through the proxy you'll have to edit /usr/share/grafana/conf/defaults.ini

domain = <domain_name>
root_url = %(protocol)s://%(domain)s/grafana

Thanks Xose, saludos desde Peru.

@austrisv

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commented Aug 27, 2019

Very useful guide, saved me a lot of time! Two notes I had to do differently:
Mosquitto was not starting after enabling tmpfs and the log directory disappearing. Fixed by adding following in the mosquitto.service definition

[Unit]
...
User=pi
PermissionsStartOnly=true
ExecStartPre=-/bin/mkdir -p /var/log/mosquitto
ExecStartPre=-/bin/chown pi:pi /var/log/mosquitto
ExecStartPre=-/bin/chmod 740 /var/log/mosquitto

InfluxDB got installed, but CLI was missing ... changed the source to latest repo (direct 'buster' instead of version 7,8,9...) and all worked like a charm!
echo "deb https://repos.influxdata.com/debian buster stable" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/influxdb.list

Thank You!

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