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A Pithy Primer, Using Libraries to Make and Manage Promises – FSA 1702, March 10, 2017

Practical Promises

March 10, 2017 A Pithy Primer – Using Libraries to Make and Manage Promises

Your Promise Mantra: Whenever you get a promise and wonder what do with it. I should think .then(function)

1. Blocking, Non-Blocking, Callback Hell

2. Promises To The Rescue


1. Callbacks and Promises

Callbacks: just functions passed to another function.

Callbacks can be invoked immediately or wait for something to happen.

Two kinds of callbacks: blocking and non-blocking.

Blocking Callbacks

These are synchronous callbacks. They happen immediately.

  arr.filter()
  arr.sort()
  arr.map()

Non-Blocking Callbacks

These are asynchronous callbacks. They happen at some points in the future.

        // Event Handlers
        button.on('click', callback);

        // Middleware
        app.use(callback);

        // Vanilla Async callback
        fs.readFile('file.txt', callback);

Some trick questions about callbacks:

      var result;
      setTimeout(function cb () {
        result = 'hello';
      }, 0);
      console.log(result);
      // 'Hello won't be printed! It'll print undefined.

      // All our synchronous code is run first.
      // The callback is put on the event queue.            // This callback is only pushed onto the call stack and executed **after** it has been cleared.


      // This prints the id of the timer! Which is the return value of setTimeout()
      var result = setTimeout(function cb () {
        return 'hello';
      }, 0);
      console.log(result);

      // But this one works!
      return value of setTimeout()
      setTimeout(function cb () {
        var result = 'hello';
        console.log(result);
        // ^ result will be defined and console log will be called at the appropriate time!
      }, 0);

The problem we have with all these asyncs is that we have to next callbacks in callbacks in callbacks in callbacks in callbacks.

This leads us to the terrifying prospect of CALLBACK HELL: endlessly nesting callbacks!

2. Promises to the Rescue

Promises represents the eventual results of an asynchronous operation.

They rescue us from CALLBACK HELL.

Callback vs. Promise

  //async Promise
  fs.readFileAsync('file.txt').then(
    function onSuccess (data) { ... },
    function onError (err) { ... }
  );

Our async promise is a little box that our value will go into. Promises are portable.

  // This still won't work! Don't forget that Promises are still based on callbacks. Our console.log() still won't log result
  var result;
  promisifiedSetTimeout(0).then(function success () {
    result = 'hello';
  });
  console.log(result);

  var result = promisifiedSetTimeout(0).then(function success () { result = 'hello'; });
  console.log(result);
  // This also won't work. Will log the Promise object it self.

  promisifiedSetTimeout(0).then(function success () {
    result = 'hello';
    console.log(result);
  });
  // This will work.

The magic of promises is that our Promise object is portable.

Check slides for a comparison between synchronous, async (callbacks), async(promises)

Portable Promises – Cool!

A Promise is an object with a space for the future value that's coming from that Promise. We can pass these boxes around.

  const promise = fs.readFileAsync('file.txt');
  // ^ the Promise object or the returned value of the promise

  doSomething(promise);
  // ^ pass our promise to another function to do something on its value

  module.exports = promise;
  // ^ makes our promise available in another module

We can pass Promises around as though we have the result – even before we have it!

Multiple Handlers – Wicked good!

As long as different parts of our file have the same promise, we can do two different things as soon as the data comes back.

Linear/Flat – So pretty!

Instead of crazy async nesting, we can do...

    fs.readFileASync('fileOne.txt')
    .then(function (contents) { .. } )
    .then(function (contents) { ... }; );

Unified Error Handling – Makes failure less sad!

As we go through our .then() chain, we can add error handling at the end ..

  .then(null, function (err) {
    console.log('error': err);
  });

  // Or use .catch!
  .catch(function(err) {
    console.log(err);
  });

If we use a .then error catcher at the end, we may not know where the error occurred.

But if we use a .catch at intervals throughout our .then() chain, we can see, 'Oh, an error occurred in one of these three .then()s'!

A .catch() is all about errors. It's only getting thrown when there is an error. An error generated by a .then() will pass it down until it's handled by an 'err' function in a .then() or a catch.

.then() is really important.

In a .then() chain, you are always passing Promises down the chain. It is NEVER the value. You can access the value of a Promise through a callback in each step of your .then() chain. But each step is always passing along a Promise object.

If you don't return anything in a then(), the next then will use the previous value.

Using a Promise in our Browser

fetch() – A browser method that does a .get request, and returns a promise for the mean time.

  var myPromise = fetch(url)
  .then(function(data) {
    console.log(data);
  });
  .then(function() {
    console.log('Im finished!');
  });

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