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[
{
"text":"The use of entanglement renormalization in the presence of scale invariance is investigated. We explain how to compute an accurate approximation of the critical ground state of a lattice model and how to evaluate local observables correlators and critical exponents. Our results unveil a precise connection between the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz MERA and conformal field theory CFT. Given a critical Hamiltonian on the lattice this connection can be exploited to extract most of the conformal data of the CFT that describes the model in the continuum limit.",
"label":"quantum entanglement"
},
{
"text":"We investigate a model where superconducting electrons are coupled to a frequency dependent chargedensity wave CDW order parameter Deltaw. Our approach can reconcile the simultaneous existence of low energy Bogoljubov quasiparticles and high energy electronic order as observed in scanning tunneling microscopy STM experiments. The theory accounts for the contrast reversal in the STM spectra between positive and negative bias observed above the pairing gap. An intrinsic relation between scattering rate and inhomogeneities follows naturally.",
"label":"electron"
},
{
"text":"We study the creation of a bosonic N00N state from the evolution of a Fock state in a double well. While noninteracting bosons disappear quickly in the Hilbert space the evolution under the influence of a BoseHubbard Hamiltonian is much more restricted. This restriction is caused by the fragmentation of the spectrum into a highenergy part with doubly degenerate levels and a nondegenerate lowenergy part. This degeneracy suppresses transitions to states of the highenergy part of the spectrum. At a moderate interaction strength this effect supports strongly the dynamical formation of a N00N state. The N00N state is suppressed in an asymmetric double well where the double degeneracy is absent.",
"label":"quantum entanglement"
},
{
"text":"An efficient scheme is proposed to carry out gate operations on an array of trapped Yb ions based on a previous proposal using both electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in a magnetic field gradient. For this purpose we consider the PaschenBack regime strong magnetic field and employ a highfield approximation in this treatment. We show the possibility to suppress the unwanted coupling between the electron spins by appropriately swapping states between electronic and nuclear spins. The feasibility of generating the required high magnetic field is discussed.",
"label":"electron"
},
{
"text":"We derive the galaxy luminosity function in the Ks band for galaxies in 24 clusters to provide a local reference for higher redshift studies and to analyse how and if the luminosity function varies according to environment and cluster properties. We use new deep K band imaging and match the photometry to available redshift information and to optical photometry from the SDSS or the UKSTPOSS 80 of the galaxies to K sim 14.5 have measured redshifts. We derive composite luminosity functions for the entire sample and for cluster subsamples . We consider the luminosity functions for red sequence and blue cloud galaxies. The full composite luminosity function has K12.79 pm 0.14 MK24.81 and alpha1.41 pm 0.10. We find that K is largely unaffected by the environment but that the slope alpha increases towards lower mass clusters and clusters with BautzMorgan type II. The red sequence luminosity function seems to be approximately universal within errors in all environments it has parameters K13.16 pm 0.15 MK24.44 and alpha1.00 pm 0.12 for all galaxies. Blue galaxies do not show a good fit to a Schechter function but the best values for its parameters are K13.51 pm 0.41 MK24.09 and alpha1.60 pm 0.29 we do not have enough statistics to consider environmental variations for these galaxies. We find some evidence that K in clusters is brighter than in the field and alpha is steeper but note this comparison is based for the field on 2MASS photometry while our data are considerably deeper.",
"label":"galaxy"
},
{
"text":"Relative observability has been introduced and studied in the framework of partially observed discreteevent systems as a condition stronger than observability but weaker than normality. However unlike observability relative observability is closed under language unions which makes it interesting for practical applications. In this paper we investigate this notion in the framework of coordination control. We prove that conditional normality is a stronger condition than conditional strong relative observability hence conditional strong relative observability can be used in coordination control instead of conditional normality and present a distributive procedure for the computation of a conditionally controllable and conditionally observable sublanguage of the specification that contains the supremal conditionally strong relative observable sublanguage.",
"label":"language"
},
{
"text":"We present a linearresponse theory for the thermopower of a singleelectron transistor consisting of a superconducting island weakly coupled to two normalconducting leads NSN SET. The thermopower shows oscillations with the same periodicity as the conductance and is rather sensitive to the size of the superconducting gap. In particular the previously studied sawtoothlike shape of the thermopower for a normalconducting singleelectron device is qualitatively changed even for small gap energies.",
"label":"electron"
},
{
"text":"We study the evolution of stellar mass in galaxies as a function of host halo mass using the MPA and Durham semianalytic models implemented on the Millennium Run simulation. The results from both models are similar. We find that about 45 of the stellar mass in central galaxies in presentday halos less massive than 1012 Msunh is already in place at z1. This fraction increases to 65 for more massive halos. The peak of star formation efficiency shifts toward lower mass halos from z1 to z0. The stellar mass in lowmass halos grows mostly by star formation since z1 while in highmass halos most of the stellar mass is assembled by mergers. These trends are clear indications of halo downsizing. We compare our findings to the results of the phenomenological method developed by Zheng Coil Zehavi 2007. The theoretical predictions are in qualitative agreement with these results however there are large discrepancies. The most significant one concerns the amount of stars already in place in the progenitor galaxies at z1 which is about a factor of two larger in both semianalytic models. We also use the semianalytic catalogs to test different assumptions made in that work and illustrate the importance of smooth accretion of dark matter when estimating the mergers contribution. We demonstrate that methods studying galaxy evolution from the galaxyhalo connection are powerful in constraining theoretical models and can guide future efforts of modeling galaxy evolution. Conversely semianalytic models serve an important role in improving such methods.",
"label":"galaxy"
},
{
"text":"For the numerical solution of the American option valuation problem we provide a script written in MATLAB implementing an explicit finite difference scheme. Our main contribute is the definition of a posteriori error estimator for the American options pricing which is based on Richardsons extrapolation theory. This error estimator allows us to find a suitable grid where the computed solution both the option price field variable and the free boundary position verify a prefixed error tolerance.",
"label":"finance"
},
{
"text":"We discuss moderate resolution spectra multicolor photometry and light curves of thirtyone of the most luminous stars and variables in the giant spiral M101. The majority are intermediate A to Ftype supergiants. We present new photometry and light curves for three known irregular blue variables V2 V4 and V9 and identify a new candidate. Their spectra and variability confirm that they are LBV candidates and V9 may be in an LBVlike maximum light state or eruption.",
"label":"solar"
},
{
"text":"Chirality discrimination is of a fundamental interest in biology chemistry and metamaterial studies. In optics nearfield plasmonresonance spectroscopy with superchiral probing fields is effectively applicable for analyses of large biomolecules with chiral properties. We show possibility for microwave nearfield chirality discrimination analysis based on magnonresonance spectroscopy. Newly developed capabilities in microwave sensing using magnetoelectric ME probing fields originated from multiresonance magneticdipolarmode MDM oscillations in quasi2D yttriumirongarnet YIG disks provide a potential for unprecedented measurements of chemical and biological objects. We report on microwave nearfield chirality discrimination for aqueous D and Lglucose solutions. The shown MEfield sensing is addressed to microwave biomedical diagnostics and pathogen detection and to deepening our understanding of microwavebiosystem interactions. It can be also important for an analysis and design of microwave chiral metamaterials.",
"label":"biological"
},
{
"text":"We present a global analysis of the geometries that arise in noncompact current algebra or gauged WZW coset models of strings and particles propagating in curved spacetime. The simplest case is the 2d black hole. In higher dimensions these geometries describe new and much more complex singularities. For string and particle theories defined in the text we introduce general methods for identifying global coordinates and give the general exact solution for the geodesics for any gauged WZW model for any number of dimensions. We then specialize to the 3d geometries associated with SO22SO21 and also SO31SO21 and discuss in detail the global space geodesics curvature singularities and duality properties of this space. The largesmall or mirror type duality property is reformulated as an inversion in group parameter space. The 3d global space has two topologically distinct sectors with patches of different sectors related by duality. The first sector has a singularity surface with the topology of pinched double trousers. It can be pictured as the world sheet of two closed strings that join into a single closed string and then split into two closed strings but with a pinch in each leg of the trousers. The second sector has a singularity surface with the topology of double saddle pictured as the world sheets of two infinite open strings that come close but do not touch. We discuss the geodesicaly complete spaces on each side of these surfaces and interpret the motion of particles in physical terms. A cosmological interpretation is suggested and comments are mode on possible physical applications.",
"label":"world war 2"
},
{
"text":"We optically probe and electrically control a single artificial molecule containing a well defined number of electrons. Charge and spin dependent interdot quantum couplings are probed optically by adding a single electronhole pair and detecting the emission from negatively charged exciton states. Coulomb and Pauli blockade effects are directly observed and hybridization and electrostatic charging energies are independently measured. The interdot quantum coupling is confirmed to be mediated predominantly by electron tunneling. Our results are in excellent accord with calculations that provide a complete picture of negative excitons and few electron states in quantum dot molecules.",
"label":"electron"
}
]
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