There is a longstanding issue/missing feature/bug with sockets on Docker on macOS; it may never work; you'll need to use a network connection between Docker containers and X11 on macOS for the foreseeable future.
I started from this gist and made some adjustments:
- the volume mappings aren't relevant/used, due to the socket issue above.
- this method only allows X11 connections from your Mac, not the entire local network, which would include everyone on the café/airport WiFi.
- updated to include using the
host.docker.internalname for the the container host, instead.
- you have to restart XQuartz after the config change.