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Bash CheatSheet for UNIX Systems --> UPDATED VERSION --> https://github.com/LeCoupa/awesome-cheatsheets
#!/bin/bash
#####################################################
# Name: Bash CheatSheet for Mac OSX
#
# A little overlook of the Bash basics
#
# Usage:
#
# Author: J. Le Coupanec
# Date: 2014/11/04
#####################################################
# 0. Shortcuts.
CTRL+A # move to beginning of line
CTRL+B # moves backward one character
CTRL+C # halts the current command
CTRL+D # deletes one character backward or logs out of current session, similar to exit
CTRL+E # moves to end of line
CTRL+F # moves forward one character
CTRL+G # aborts the current editing command and ring the terminal bell
CTRL+J # same as RETURN
CTRL+K # deletes (kill) forward to end of line
CTRL+L # clears screen and redisplay the line
CTRL+M # same as RETURN
CTRL+N # next line in command history
CTRL+O # same as RETURN, then displays next line in history file
CTRL+P # previous line in command history
CTRL+R # searches backward
CTRL+S # searches forward
CTRL+T # transposes two characters
CTRL+U # kills backward from point to the beginning of line
CTRL+V # makes the next character typed verbatim
CTRL+W # kills the word behind the cursor
CTRL+X # lists the possible filename completefions of the current word
CTRL+Y # retrieves (yank) last item killed
CTRL+Z # stops the current command, resume with fg in the foreground or bg in the background
DELETE # deletes one character backward
!! # repeats the last command
exit # logs out of current session
# 1. Bash Basics.
export # displays all environment variables
echo $SHELL # displays the shell you're using
echo $BASH_VERSION # displays bash version
bash # if you want to use bash (type exit to go back to your normal shell)
whereis bash # finds out where bash is on your system
clear # clears content on window (hide displayed lines)
# 1.1. File Commands.
ls # lists your files
ls -l # lists your files in 'long format', which contains the exact size of the file, who owns the file and who has the right to look at it, and when it was last modified
ls -a # lists all files, including hidden files
ln -s <filename> <link> # creates symbolic link to file
touch <filename> # creates or updates your file
cat > <filename> # places standard input into file
more <filename> # shows the first part of a file (move with space and type q to quit)
head <filename> # outputs the first 10 lines of file
tail <filename> # outputs the last 10 lines of file (useful with -f option)
emacs <filename> # lets you create and edit a file
mv <filename1> <filename2> # moves a file
cp <filename1> <filename2> # copies a file
rm <filename> # removes a file
diff <filename1> <filename2> # compares files, and shows where they differ
wc <filename> # tells you how many lines, words and characters there are in a file
chmod -options <filename> # lets you change the read, write, and execute permissions on your files
gzip <filename> # compresses files
gunzip <filename> # uncompresses files compressed by gzip
gzcat <filename> # lets you look at gzipped file without actually having to gunzip it
lpr <filename> # print the file
lpq # check out the printer queue
lprm <jobnumber> # remove something from the printer queue
genscript # converts plain text files into postscript for printing and gives you some options for formatting
dvips <filename> # print .dvi files (i.e. files produced by LaTeX)
grep <pattern> <filenames> # looks for the string in the files
grep -r <pattern> <dir> # search recursively for pattern in directory
# 1.2. Directory Commands.
mkdir <dirname> # makes a new directory
cd # changes to home
cd <dirname> # changes directory
pwd # tells you where you currently are
# 1.3. SSH, System Info & Network Commands.
ssh user@host # connects to host as user
ssh -p <port> user@host # connects to host on specified port as user
ssh-copy-id user@host # adds your ssh key to host for user to enable a keyed or passwordless login
whoami # returns your username
passwd # lets you change your password
quota -v # shows what your disk quota is
date # shows the current date and time
cal # shows the month's calendar
uptime # shows current uptime
w # displays whois online
finger <user> # displays information about user
uname -a # shows kernel information
man <command> # shows the manual for specified command
df # shows disk usage
du <filename> # shows the disk usage of the files and directories in filename (du -s give only a total)
last <yourUsername> # lists your last logins
ps -u yourusername # lists your processes
kill <PID> # kills (ends) the processes with the ID you gave
killall <processname> # kill all processes with the name
top # displays your currently active processes
bg # lists stopped or background jobs ; resume a stopped job in the background
fg # brings the most recent job in the foreground
fg <job> # brings job to the foreground
ping <host> # pings host and outputs results
whois <domain> # gets whois information for domain
dig <domain> # gets DNS information for domain
dig -x <host> # reverses lookup host
wget <file> # downloads file
# 2. Basic Shell Programming.
# 2.1. Variables.
varname=value # defines a variable
varname=value command # defines a variable to be in the environment of a particular subprocess
echo $varname # checks a variable's value
echo $$ # prints process ID of the current shell
echo $! # prints process ID of the most recently invoked background job
echo $? # displays the exit status of the last command
export VARNAME=value # defines an environment variable (will be available in subprocesses)
array[0] = val # several ways to define an array
array[1] = val
array[2] = val
array=([2]=val [0]=val [1]=val)
array(val val val)
${array[i]} # displays array's value for this index. If no index is supplied, array element 0 is assumed
${#array[i]} # to find out the length of any element in the array
${#array[@]} # to find out how many values there are in the array
declare -a # the variables are treaded as arrays
declare -f # uses funtion names only
declare -F # displays function names without definitions
declare -i # the variables are treaded as integers
declare -r # makes the variables read-only
declare -x # marks the variables for export via the environment
${varname:-word} # if varname exists and isn't null, return its value; otherwise return word
${varname:=word} # if varname exists and isn't null, return its value; otherwise set it word and then return its value
${varname:?message} # if varname exists and isn't null, return its value; otherwise print varname, followed by message and abort the current command or script
${varname:+word} # if varname exists and isn't null, return word; otherwise return null
${varname:offset:length} # performs substring expansion. It returns the substring of $varname starting at offset and up to length characters
${variable#pattern} # if the pattern matches the beginning of the variable's value, delete the shortest part that matches and return the rest
${variable##pattern} # if the pattern matches the beginning of the variable's value, delete the longest part that matches and return the rest
${variable%pattern} # if the pattern matches the end of the variable's value, delete the shortest part that matches and return the rest
${variable%%pattern} # if the pattern matches the end of the variable's value, delete the longest part that matches and return the rest
${variable/pattern/string} # the longest match to pattern in variable is replaced by string. Only the first match is replaced
${variable//pattern/string} # the longest match to pattern in variable is replaced by string. All matches are replaced
${#varname} # returns the length of the value of the variable as a character string
*(patternlist) # matches zero or more occurences of the given patterns
+(patternlist) # matches one or more occurences of the given patterns
?(patternlist) # matches zero or one occurence of the given patterns
@(patternlist) # matches exactly one of the given patterns
!(patternlist) # matches anything except one of the given patterns
$(UNIX command) # command substitution: runs the command and returns standard output
# 2.2. Functions.
# The function refers to passed arguments by position (as if they were positional parameters), that is, $1, $2, and so forth.
# $@ is equal to "$1" "$2"... "$N", where N is the number of positional parameters. $# holds the number of positional parameters.
functname() {
shell commands
}
unset -f functname # deletes a function definition
declare -f # displays all defined functions in your login session
# 2.3. Flow Control.
statement1 && statement2 # and operator
statement1 || statement2 # or operator
-a # and operator inside a test conditional expression
-o # or operator inside a test conditional expression
str1=str2 # str1 matches str2
str1!=str2 # str1 does not match str2
str1<str2 # str1 is less than str2
str1>str2 # str1 is greater than str2
-n str1 # str1 is not null (has length greater than 0)
-z str1 # str1 is null (has length 0)
-a file # file exists
-d file # file exists and is a directory
-e file # file exists; same -a
-f file # file exists and is a regular file (i.e., not a directory or other special type of file)
-r file # you have read permission
-r file # file exists and is not empty
-w file # your have write permission
-x file # you have execute permission on file, or directory search permission if it is a directory
-N file # file was modified since it was last read
-O file # you own file
-G file # file's group ID matches yours (or one of yours, if you are in multiple groups)
file1 -nt file2 # file1 is newer than file2
file1 -ot file2 # file1 is older than file2
-lt # less than
-le # less than or equal
-eq # equal
-ge # greater than or equal
-gt # greater than
-ne # not equal
if condition
then
statements
[elif condition
then statements...]
[else
statements]
fi
for x := 1 to 10 do
begin
statements
end
for name [in list]
do
statements that can use $name
done
for (( initialisation ; ending condition ; update ))
do
statements...
done
case expression in
pattern1 )
statements ;;
pattern2 )
statements ;;
...
esac
select name [in list]
do
statements that can use $name
done
while condition; do
statements
done
until condition; do
statements
done
# 3. Command-Line Processing Cycle.
# The default order for command lookup is functions, followed by built-ins, with scripts and executables last.
# There are three built-ins that you can use to override this order: `command`, `builtin` and `enable`.
command # removes alias and function lookup. Only built-ins and commands found in the search path are executed
builtin # looks up only built-in commands, ignoring functions and commands found in PATH
enable # enables and disables shell built-ins
eval # takes arguments and run them through the command-line processing steps all over again
# 4. Input/Output Redirectors.
cmd1|cmd2 # pipe; takes standard output of cmd1 as standard input to cmd2
> file # directs standard output to file
< file # takes standard input from file
>> file # directs standard output to file; append to file if it already exists
>|file # forces standard output to file even if noclobber is set
n>|file # forces output to file from file descriptor n even if noclobber is set
<> file # uses file as both standard input and standard output
n<>file # uses file as both input and output for file descriptor n
<<label # here-document
n>file # directs file descriptor n to file
n<file # takes file descriptor n from file
n>>file # directs file description n to file; append to file if it already exists
n>& # duplicates standard output to file descriptor n
n<& # duplicates standard input from file descriptor n
n>&m # file descriptor n is made to be a copy of the output file descriptor
n<&m # file descriptor n is made to be a copy of the input file descriptor
&>file # directs standard output and standard error to file
<&- # closes the standard input
>&- # closes the standard output
n>&- # closes the ouput from file descriptor n
n<&- # closes the input from file descripor n
# 5. Process Handling.
# To suspend a job, type CTRL+Z while it is running. You can also suspend a job with CTRL+Y.
# This is slightly different from CTRL+Z in that the process is only stopped when it attempts to read input from terminal.
# Of course, to interupt a job, type CTRL+C.
myCommand & # runs job in the background and prompts back the shell
jobs # lists all jobs (use with -l to see associated PID)
fg # brings a background job into the foreground
fg %+ # brings most recently invoked background job
fg %- # brings second most recently invoked background job
fg %N # brings job number N
fg %string # brings job whose command begins with string
fg %?string # brings job whose command contains string
kill -l # returns a list of all signals on the system, by name and number
kill PID # terminates process with specified PID
ps # prints a line of information about the current running login shell and any processes running under it
ps -a # selects all processes with a tty except session leaders
trap cmd sig1 sig2 # executes a command when a signal is received by the script
trap "" sig1 sig2 # ignores that signals
trap - sig1 sig2 # resets the action taken when the signal is received to the default
disown <PID|JID> # removes the process from the list of jobs
wait # waits until all background jobs have finished
# 6. Tips and Tricks.
# set an alias
cd; nano .bash_profile
> alias gentlenode='ssh admin@gentlenode.com -p 3404' # add your alias in .bash_profile
# to quickly go to a specific directory
cd; nano .bashrc
> shopt -s cdable_vars
> export websites="/Users/mac/Documents/websites"
source .bashrc
cd websites
# 7. Debugging Shell Programs.
bash -n scriptname # don't run commands; check for syntax errors only
set -o noexec # alternative (set option in script)
bash -v scriptname # echo commands before running them
set -o verbose # alternative (set option in script)
bash -x scriptname # echo commands after command-line processing
set -o xtrace # alternative (set option in script)
trap 'echo $varname' EXIT # useful when you want to print out the values of variables at the point that your script exits
function errtrap {
es=$?
echo "ERROR line $1: Command exited with status $es."
}
trap 'errtrap $LINENO' ERR # is run whenever a command in the surrounding script or function exists with non-zero status
function dbgtrap {
echo "badvar is $badvar"
}
trap dbgtrap DEBUG # causes the trap code to be executed before every statement in a function or script
# ...section of code in which the problem occurs...
trap - DEBUG # turn off the DEBUG trap
function returntrap {
echo "A return occured"
}
trap returntrap RETURN # is executed each time a shell function or a script executed with the . or source commands finishes executing
@Yemster79

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Yemster79 commented Nov 24, 2015

Hello I have a CW on Bash Scripting and I do not have a clue one what to do I have no knowledge or experience on Bash Shell Scripting programming

@trevordmiller

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trevordmiller commented Jan 2, 2016

Wonderful cheat sheet. Thank you for sharing!

@cl0482

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cl0482 commented Feb 16, 2016

Thanks for the cheat sheet!

@wireman0001

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wireman0001 commented Mar 8, 2016

Thank you, very handy to have.

@NanXiao

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NanXiao commented Mar 14, 2016

cat > # places standard input into file: Is this right?

@bossyerffej

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bossyerffej commented Mar 28, 2016

<script src="https://gist.github.com/LeCoupa/122b12050f5fb267e75f.js"></script>
@bossyerffej

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bossyerffej commented Mar 28, 2016

@lincolnfrias

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lincolnfrias commented Apr 5, 2016

Excellent. Thank you!

@chinmayrajyaguru

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chinmayrajyaguru commented Jun 27, 2016

Wow! It's really great collection and very useful.
Thank you!

@kullaireddy

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kullaireddy commented Sep 12, 2016

Great! thanks for sharing.

@winnettjohnston

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winnettjohnston commented Oct 5, 2016

Haha emacs guy! wheres vi?

@adkhare

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adkhare commented Oct 26, 2016

This is awesome

@everydayslang

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everydayslang commented Jan 17, 2017

Thanks for this!

@DavidBrower

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DavidBrower commented Jan 20, 2017

Really helpful!

@ghost

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ghost commented Jan 25, 2017

Thank you...!!!!

@tjiketikaowaow

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tjiketikaowaow commented Feb 13, 2017

Great summary, wonders if theres a typo
array(val val val)
should perhaps be
array=(val val val)

@ryanhanwu

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ryanhanwu commented Feb 20, 2017

This is very useful, thank you!

@mofelee

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mofelee commented Feb 21, 2017

AWESOME!!!

@rnkr

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rnkr commented Feb 26, 2017

very useful, cheers !

@tnaduc

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tnaduc commented Feb 27, 2017

thank you.

@EchoNine

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EchoNine commented Mar 5, 2017

Well done .. keep it up.

@SimonNtz

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SimonNtz commented Mar 28, 2017

Great work! What do you think to add command which to the file commands?

@sangimed

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sangimed commented Mar 31, 2017

Hi. Thank you really handy just added it to my personal cheatsheets

@RamonYeung

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RamonYeung commented Apr 5, 2017

Make my life easier!

@lihongjie0209

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lihongjie0209 commented Apr 6, 2017

thanks a lot

@pineking

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pineking commented Apr 7, 2017

Great

@charlie4727

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charlie4727 commented Apr 18, 2017

boom! great stuff

@zongmianli

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zongmianli commented Apr 22, 2017

That saves my life!

@tskotov

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tskotov commented May 11, 2017

Hi,
Nice document!
But I see that '-h' option is missing in "2.3. Flow Control." section.
http://www.gnu.org/software/bash/manual/html_node/Bash-Conditional-Expressions.html tells us:
"-h file
True if file exists and is a symbolic link. "

@afishr

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afishr commented Jun 27, 2017

Hi!
You can add in # 1.2. Directory Commands "cd -" that goes back to previous directory.

@quibbleahr

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quibbleahr commented Jul 23, 2017

Hello! Great cheat sheet. Just a couple suggestions:

  • I noticed that while you showed the rm <filename> command in 1.1. File Commands, there is no instruction on how to remove a directory using the recursive command rm -r <dirname> in 1.2. Directory Commands.
  • It might be useful to add a section that shows shortcuts/names for certain directories, for example:
.       # current directory
..      # one directory above current directory (e.g: "cd .." changes to directory above, without "")
/       # file system where useful directories such as /usr and /bin are contained (e.g: "cd /" changes to file system without "")

Either way, great stuff! Will definitely be referencing this a lot! 😄

@LumiWang

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LumiWang commented Aug 4, 2017

Couldn't be better! Saves so much time! Million thanks!

@LumiWang

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LumiWang commented Aug 4, 2017

On line 224, file exists and is not empty, use -s. Some typo there.

@RMorgado

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RMorgado commented Aug 10, 2017

Thank you 👍

@ImraanGoonner

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ImraanGoonner commented Aug 22, 2017

Legend man....

@niklasnson

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niklasnson commented Sep 3, 2017

Nice, thanks!

@shravanrai

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shravanrai commented Oct 12, 2017

Very Nice,Thanks!

@NonNeutralZero

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NonNeutralZero commented Oct 12, 2017

Thanks for the awesome stuff, will be using this a lot!!

@alitskevich

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alitskevich commented Nov 6, 2017

Great!
noticed typo:
222: -r file # you have read permission
223: -r file # file exists and is not empty

@michaelmld

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michaelmld commented Jan 8, 2018

you're the real MVP!!!!

@vinnycrm

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vinnycrm commented Feb 16, 2018

Thank you for CheatSheet . . .

@beNitinhere

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beNitinhere commented Feb 18, 2018

Thanks man

@etienne-64

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etienne-64 commented Feb 21, 2018

Thanks a lot for this very useful document.

@jack-nie

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jack-nie commented Mar 15, 2018

wonderful article, thank you

@ranjitiyer

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ranjitiyer commented Apr 11, 2018

Very useful cheatsheet. Thank you!

@Npizza

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Npizza commented May 13, 2018

Very usefull thank you !

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