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Python Conversion

Python Number Conversion Chart

From To Expression
45 "45" str(data)
45 "101101" bin(data)
45 "2D" hex(data)
45 "\x00\x00\x00\x2d" struct.pack('!i', data)
"45" 45 int(data)
"45" "3435" data.encode('hex')
"101101" 45 int(data, 2)
"2D" 45 int(data, 16)
"2D" "\x2d" binascii.unhexlify(data) or data.decode('hex')
"\x00\x00\x00\x2d" 45 struct.unpack('!i', data)[0]
"\x2d" "2D" binascii.hexlify(data)
"3435" "45" data.decode('hex')

Comments are welcome here or in my original blog post regarding this table.

Niggler commented Apr 20, 2013

oct(45) -> '055' and int('055', 8) -> 45

agfor commented Apr 20, 2013

Definitely handy.

bin and hex add 0b and 0x to the beginning of the strings -- '{:b}'.format and '{:x}'.format don't do that.

encode('hex') and decode('hex') could use an explanation, and note that hex has been removed as an encoding in Python 3.

My fork with those changes:

Posted this on the blog too, but I realized I'd rather post here...

I forked this to compare it with Scala - - but I'm not sure what to do with "\x00\x00\x00\x2d". What is this encoding (and why would you want it)?

agfor commented Apr 20, 2013

With regards to encode / decode hex: In Python 3.2+, you can do codecs.encode(b"45", "hex_codec").

Caustic commented Apr 20, 2013

@chris-martin You would use it when you're dealing with binary encoded data. This gives deterministic positions of elements in structures relative to each other.

See here for more information.

Edit: To add to that, I saw on your site that you specialize in security. A clear application of binary encoding to infosec is shellcode!

I forked this to compare with Ruby (, but I'm not sure what the "45" to "3435" conversion is meant to be?

@Caustic What I'm missing is the precisely what Python's str type really means. Do Python strings actually correspond directly to a specific representation as a bit array (rather than the more abstract notion of a unicode string that I'm used to on the JVM) - so "\x00\x00\x00\2d" doesn't strictly denote a 4-character string like I thought, but rather some 32 bits with no particular semantics attached?

@havenwood "4" is ascii 0x34, "5" is ascii 0x35. I don't know why you'd ever want to do this conversion.

eordano commented Apr 20, 2013

ord('a') = 97
chr(97) = 'a'

@chris-martin Good point, I wouldn't. Except for just this. :P

Finished the Ruby translation, but gosh the "45" to "3435" and vice-versa are fugly.

kindall commented Apr 20, 2013

@chris-martin In Python 2.x, str is basically a byte array. In Python 3.x, str is a Unicode string. We're looking at Python 2.x here, it seems.

zwegner commented Apr 20, 2013

@Niggler If you don't know what base it's in, you can specify a base of 0:
int('055', 0) -> 45 or int('0x55', 0) -> 85

I'm not sure what to do with "\x00\x00\x00\x2d". What is this encoding (and why would you want it)?

It's a 4-byte int in the network byte order.

plq commented Apr 21, 2013

@chris-martin, @havenwood to give you a real-world example for the hex encoding ("45" => "3435"):

this is quite inefficient, I know, but you sometimes need it for backwards compatibility.

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