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lit-html is awesome, but it came afterwards

The history of hyperHTML followed by lit-html

While many remember the epic hyperHTML: A Virtual DOM Alternative post I've published the 5th of March 2017, the first official implementation of the library was working as hyperHTML.bind(node) function for tagged literals the day before, and it's been in my experiments folder already for a little while.

The hilarious reaction from the skeptical community

At first glance people couldn't believe performance of the DBMonster demo shown in that article, and one of the best day of my life has been realizing, after a shit storm of negative comments about how badly I was selling fake performance, that in reality everyone blaming me didn't understand the benchmark, so that my library was actually performing close to twice as fast than any other.

It's a good exercise to read that whole thread, how many people changed tone or disappeared, after being slapped after their very same complains: them selling their product as faster!

The community, after all, was very positive!

The development after such successful blog post went crazy! So crazy, that as soon as I had to find solutions for common cases, I started making up intriguing API names so that at some point a method went out called frog.

Quite instantly after, people interested in this revolutionary library complained about such choice, so that the name got replaced by wire.

The hyperHTML.wire(...) was able to create DOM nodes, as opposite of just populating them as .bind(...) does. You can easily distinguish these two methods as where to render, a bound element, and what to render, one or more wired nodes.

Around the 21st of June, the full refactored branch already based on HTMLTemplateElement went in as major candidate of version 1.

I've been working on that branch for quite some time and the introduction of template was key to solve all outstanding issues such create a <td> element or similar, something you cannot do via innerHTML.

Trust me:

document.body.innerHTML = '<td>nope</td>';
// null

You read that right, it's not the td element we've just created, it's actually null because no TD ever was created at all.

This is just one extra piece of the puzzle hyperHTML library was already aware of, and ahead of, competitors ... which actually, didn't exist 'till that day, isn't it?

And suddenly, the wild Big player appears ...

The 29th of July 2017, Justin Fagnani perfectly described the strength of hyperHTML in a tweet.

You'd do much better diffing by skipping the static parts altogether. Then you only compare new values flowing into dynamic parts.

Too bad such great Google developer didn't understand whatever he was testing during those days ... I guess hyperHTML was quite unusually advanced to grasp right away ...

... and I swear, I've warned him

others you mentioned do not do anything similar to what hyperHTML does. Just saying. hyperHTML is unique in what it does so far.

something was very different about hyperHTML, yet he ignored me, and my code he supposed to have tested, and the 29th of July he created an empty repository under Polymer GitHub account.

Helping a developer doubling down and explicitly asking for sustainability in Open Source? Nope.

Questions? Reach out? Filed bugs? Nope, nopity nope!

How lovely ... !

The standards gotcha

It's not before the 29th of March 2017, almost after one month after hyperHTML announcement, and weirdly after 2 months from the last post, that something moves into standard bodies, with a post summarized as such:

<template id="test" type="application/javascript">
    <h2 class="heading">${heading}</h2>
    <div class="content">${content}</div>

And not before June 26th, that the very same Justin replied to that post.

  <my-element prop="{{value}}" attr$="{{thing}}" on-click="{{onClick}}"></my-element>

That's 4 months after my library was already out, the template was already used to fix partial content issues, and yet they have to propose something different 'cause looking around what's available already is not really what Google people do these days.

lit-html gets announced 🎉

It's Polymer Summit 2017, old style DOM manipulation is mentioned, JSX with React is mentioned, and not a single fuck about the library that already brought real HTML and targeted updates through template literals was given ... or better, it was mentioned, but it was put in a group with other libraries that had nothing to do with hyperHTML features and architecture, because hyperHTML was doing already everything lit-html was doing too!

TFW ...

As much as both projects were based on different languages, even if lit-html kept talking about standards, there was this weird feeling every-fucking-thing was the same, even on the code level:

creepy similarities

And yet not a single mention in their own repository about alternatives, even if they kept claiming:

lit-html is not production ready.

... regardless ...

lit-html keeps announcing itself!

In October 2017, lit-html was promoted again during Chrome Dev Summit.

Few developers contacted me telling that it was very unfair because hyperHTML hasn't be mentioned in the whole Summit.

So, looking at that video, JSX is mentioned again, and all the benefits of using just JS, and here I am really trying to not underline that lit-html is fully based on TypeScript, not ECMAScript standards it uses, but something else that is not standard ... OK, OK, I'll try to keep this argumet outside this post ...

Developers aren't stupid

It's overwhelming to have a lot of real people and developers, and not just colleagues, supporting me, helping me, or even sponsoring me, while telling me when things aren't really OK, like it happened few times already in the lit-html case.

Different, after all!

This is one thing I agree about: you have options, and beside the big or small name behind, you want to solve your problem, not the one me or Justin think you should solve.

And here some good news: you have options 🎉 !!!

But you also have an idea why there is some friction between these two libraries, and hopefully you understood why it's difficult to make both happy.

Regardless, I don't care what you chose, 'cause I strongly believe none of my libraries is good for your use case, unless you have fully understood what you are trying to solve.

After all, Google talks about hyperHTML too 🎉

That's fact, but people that know the story already, aren't really happy anyway:

If HyperHTML is so similar to lit-html, and predates lit-html, and had some traction already, and it's actively maintained, and it's currently more powerful, and has Node and NativeScript implementations... Why didn't you guys promote HyperHTML right away? What's the reason for lit-html?

That is the first comment of the video that for the first time made me believe there's really no conspiracy against hyperHTML in Google.

Quick note about me VS Google

You know, they contacted me, and interviewed me, and I screwed it up, 'cause Java, C++, and everything-but JS/Web developers interviewed me at that time and on a white board.

They asked me problems they've already solved, without asking me problems related to my skills nobody has solved before, including them: you'd be surprised Google!

Sadly ending, it didn't go well, as you can guess, but who knows, maybe their heuristics about hiring, will change one day, or maybe they'll hire all the smartest people in this world without any clue ever about the problem they are trying to solve per each specific field?

That's a corporate deadlock Google, you know you're better than that!

Thank you for reading.


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@bcomnes bcomnes commented Feb 17, 2018

Thanks for writing down the history!


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@jondashkyle jondashkyle commented Feb 17, 2018

Huge ups


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@ematipico ematipico commented Feb 17, 2018

Thank you for the heads up!


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@Textras Textras commented Feb 26, 2018

Great post. Thanks for all the hard work Andrea.

Great quote also; "This is one thing I agree about: you have options, and beside the big or small name behind, you want to solve your problem, not the one me or Justin think you should solve."


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@jovdb jovdb commented Mar 28, 2018

I enjoyed using hyperHTML more than lit-html.
I find it more stable and easier to use.

Here a link where they say lit-html is inspired by hyperHTML

Here a link to a podcast where you talk about the similarities with lit-html:


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@coderofsalvation coderofsalvation commented May 15, 2018

I too remember the initial shitstorm you've received for hyperhtml's performance :)
It was an interesting scientist vs brainwashed religion scenario :)
I also think the reason behind lit-html was more: how can polymer attract react-developers.
Feel blessed about the fact that you're the inspiration of Google developers, and the fact that everybody knows it.
Not many people can say this.
You deserve an opensource award!


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@Lonniebiz Lonniebiz commented May 30, 2018

I found out about hyperHTML before lit-html, and I too saw the summit videos. I was put off by the fact that Justin didn't give you way more credit as being the inventor of this idea. They basically created lit-html by studying the source code of your github! I know all this is open source, but the right thing for rich-google to do is to pay you a large sum of money as a thank you for the contribution you've made to their framework. They really need to do more for you, than briefly mention hyperHTML as a similar technology.

Here's something strange that I've experienced on a number of occasions, when I'd search YouTube for "hyperHTML". The pod-cast you were on would come up in the search, but it wouldn't play unless I fast-forwarded the video a little first. Without doing this the video would not start playing. And, at the same time, showcased right beside that hyperHTML podcast would be Justin's submit video about lit-html (of course it played instantly without issue).

That said, please make some more youtube videos about hyperHTML, showcasing some cool demos. The only good video is that podcast; the other ones are quick teasers without any sound. You'll make a bigger impact by putting yourself out on youtube a little more. Everyone needs to respect your accomplishment, and again, Google ought to be really kind to you for inventing something they really needed. It would give me great joy if they ultimately reward in some way.


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@tylergraf tylergraf commented Jun 11, 2018

I'd like to hear @justinfagnani's side of the story.


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@SMotaal SMotaal commented Jun 23, 2018

@tylergraf I guess it will happen eventually, Google folks always have a summit around the corner this time of the year


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@area73 area73 commented Oct 12, 2018

Brilliant expo, cheers


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@WebReflection WebReflection commented Feb 15, 2019

I'd like to hear @justinfagnani's side of the story.

@tylergraf ... more or less similarly articulated as mine ...


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@WebReflection WebReflection commented May 6, 2019

to avoid anyone from wondering if lit-html committed plagiarism, I've answered in here:


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@winston0410 winston0410 commented Jun 30, 2020

Not sure if I am good enough to understand your code, but I admire your work. Really.


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@mrft mrft commented Sep 24, 2020

Just a question.

I was reading this post while trying to understand all the different tools that existed to efficiently update the DOM, when building custom elements.

If I understand it correctly there are 2 key elements to your approach: using ES2015 string literals and using DOM diffing without a virtual DOM.

Somehow what you are describing here (and in this other post: feels very similar to what vomit does.
I looked at the history of vomit a bit and I found 2 interesting commits:

So could it be that your post of 5th of March 2017 about "hyperHTML: A Virtual DOM Alternative" wasn't such a novel idea after all?

Or is there a big difference between the 2 approaches that I fail to understand, because in that case I'd really like to comprehend what the differences are?


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@WebReflection WebReflection commented Sep 24, 2020

So could it be that your post of 5th of March 2017 about "hyperHTML: A Virtual DOM Alternative" wasn't such a novel idea after all?

The difference is here, where vomit was handling data either as string or template, creating a new element each time, without parsing static parts of the template and addressing changes only within interpolations, which is the strength of all my libraries.

There are years of posts and documentation regarding how these libraries work: it's not about handlign strings, it's about handling partial updates around static parts of a template which is always the same reference.

I suggest you to read this documentation to better understand what is going on, but also hyperHTML the Nitty Gritty jurassic demo that explains with code what's going on.


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@mrft mrft commented Sep 26, 2020

Thanks a lot for the clarification.


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@ankit90anand ankit90anand commented Nov 17, 2020

I think this technique has not received as much traction as it deserves in the tech community.

Can someone explain me why google is not marketing lit-HTML as react guys do?

Important is tech world should know that there is a native way.

By the way I am great fan of hyperHtml and I used it my project


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@windmaomao windmaomao commented Feb 28, 2021

Somehow I think lit html is same as react, I mean syntax wise, except jsx. I don’t know if react or hyperhtml is first. The thing is that these days it’s hard to say who’s copying who simply because everyone is copying everyone as long as they like the same idea. It’s hard to protect idea in this field.

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