This repo uses a CSS-in-JS library called Emotion for its styling.
Emotion is a performant and flexible CSS-in-JS library. Building on many other CSS-in-JS libraries, it allows us to style apps quickly with string or object styles. It has predictable composition to avoid specificity issues in CSS. With source maps and labels, Emotion has a great developer experience and performance with heavy caching in production.
Also, Material UI v5 will most likely use Emotion instead of JSS:
material-ui - [RFC] v5 styling solution