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A Lisp interpreter in C, part 7: comments

Blog 2020/1/11

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A Lisp interpreter in C, part 7: comments

Let's learn how to write a Lisp interpreter in C!

In part 7, we'll wrap up the initial implementation of our reader with support for comments.

I regret this

In retrospect, I don't like the way I've implemented this -- it feels like a bit of an abstraction leak. So I'll probably revisit this as soon as I finish publishing the rest of these blog posts.

I didn't want to treat a comment as a Lisp form, so I had read_form() return a specific error code (E_read_form__comment) when it encounters a comment token. The repl was then updated to treat this error as a non-error and continue to the next loop iteration.

While this accomplishes what I wanted (to treat comments as whitespace), it does so in a very roundabout fashion.

Instead, I'd like to update fbuff_discard_ws() to handle comments directly.

The repl

Here, repl() handles the E_read_form__comment error from read_form() by simply trying again:

repl.c:

         if (err) {
             if (err == EOF) {
                 break;
+            } else if (err == E_read_form__comment) {
+                continue;
             } else {
                 int err2 = fprintf(stderr, "Error %d.\n", err);
                 if (err2 < 0) {

The reader

We update fbuff_get_token() to handle ; as the beginning of a comment and treat everything until \n as a token.

reader.c:

     /* this is a multi-character token. */
     } else {
         /* the rest of the chars. */
+        bool is_comment = (ch == ';');
+
         while (true) {
             size_t len = cursor - *buffpp;
 
@@ -303,8 +304,16 @@
             } else if (err != 0) {
                 return err;
 
-            /* we've reached the end of this token. */
-            } else if (is_ch_delim(ch)) {
+            /* we've reached the end of this regular token. */
+            } else if (!is_comment && is_ch_delim(ch)) {
+                fbuff_ungetch(fbp, ch);
+                *cursor = '\0';
+                break;
+
+            /* we've reached the end of this comment token. */
+            } else if (is_comment && ch == '\n') {
+                /* we leave the trailing '\n' to ensure the list args are
+                still whitespace-separated. */
                 fbuff_ungetch(fbp, ch);
                 *cursor = '\0';
                 break;

We also need to treat a comment as a delimiter between tokens:

reader.c:

 /* Does ch indicate the end of a token? */
 static bool is_ch_delim(char ch) {
-    return is_ch_ws(ch) || ch == '(' || ch == ')';
+    return is_ch_ws(ch) || ch == '(' || ch == ')' || ch == ';';
 }

We update read_form() to return the error E_read_form__comment when it finds a token which starts with ;:

reader.c:

     if (ch1 == '\0') {
         return EOF;
 
+    /* this is a comment. */
+    } else if (ch1 == ';') {
+        return E_read_form__comment;
+
     /* a list. */
     } else if (ch1 == '(') {
         return read_list(fbp, formpp);

We update read_list() to ignore comment tokens:

reader.c:

             Form* formp;
             err = read_form(fbp, &formp);
             if (err) {
-                /* reaching EOF before ')' is an error. */
-                if (err == EOF) {
-                    return E_read_list__premature_eof_3;
+                if (err == E_read_form__comment) {
+                    continue;
                 } else {
-                    return err;
+                    /* reaching EOF before ')' is an error. */
+                    if (err == EOF) {
+                        return E_read_list__premature_eof_3;
+                    } else {
+                        return err;
+                    }
                 }
 
             /* append the form onto the list. */

Try it out

Yay comments!

$ ./lisp 
> 1 ; this is a comment
1
>
$ echo -e '(;comment\n1 2;comment\n);comment' | ./lisp
(1 2)
$

Next time

We finally have a basic reader implemented. Now we can start focusing on implementing evaluation and language semantics!

In part 8, we'll implement an environment!

/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
#ifndef _ERRCODE_H_
#define _ERRCODE_H_
enum ErrCode_ {
/* not an error. */
E_success = 0,
/* A catch-all "unknown" error. */
/* Note: we start at 10,000 to skip past the errno range. */
E_unknown = 10000,
/* We ran out of buffer while reading a token. */
E_file_get_token__buff_overflow = 10010,
/* We tried to parse an invalid string. */
E_parse_string__invalid_string_1 = 10020,
E_parse_string__invalid_string_2 = 10021,
E_parse_string__invalid_string_3 = 10022,
E_parse_string__invalid_string_4 = 10023,
E_read_list__premature_eof_1 = 10030,
E_read_list__premature_eof_2 = 10031,
E_read_list__premature_eof_3 = 10032,
E_read_list__missing_ws = 10040,
E_read_form__unexpected_list_closer = 10050,
E_read_form__comment = 10051,
};
typedef enum ErrCode_ ErrCode;
#endif
/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
#include "eval.h"
#include "printer.h"
#include <assert.h>
/* Evaluates formp into resultpp.
Returns 0. */
int eval_form(Form* formp, Form** resultpp) {
/* for now, all forms evaluate to themselves. */
if (is_symbol(formp) || is_clong(formp) || is_cdouble(formp)
|| is_cstring(formp) || is_list(formp))
{
*resultpp = formp;
return 0;
/* unsupported form. */
} else {
assert(false);
}
}
/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
#ifndef _EVAL_H_
#define _EVAL_H_
#include "forms.h"
int eval_form(Form* formp, Form** resultpp);
#endif
/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
/* All of the Lisp forms. */
#include "forms.h"
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sys/errno.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include <string.h>
/* Symbol */
/* Malloc's a Symbol into sympp and copies sp into it. */
int new_symbol(Symbol** sympp, const char* sp) {
Symbol* symp = malloc(sizeof(Symbol));
if (symp == NULL) {
int err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
}
symp->type = TypeSymbol;
size_t len = strlen(sp);
symp->valuep = malloc(len + 1);
if (symp->valuep == NULL) {
free(symp);
int err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
}
strcpy(symp->valuep, sp);
*sympp = symp;
return 0;
}
/* Is formp a Symbol? */
bool is_symbol(Form* formp) {
return formp->type == TypeSymbol;
}
/* CLong */
/* Malloc's a CLong into clpp, initializing it with l.
Returns 0 or errno. */
int new_clong(CLong** clpp, long l) {
CLong* clp = malloc(sizeof(CLong));
if (clp == NULL) {
int err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
}
clp->type = TypeCLong;
clp->value = l;
*clpp = clp;
return 0;
}
/* Is formp a CLong? */
bool is_clong(Form* formp) {
return formp->type == TypeCLong;
}
/* CDouble */
/* Malloc's a CDouble into cdpp, initializing it with d.
Returns 0 or errno. */
int new_cdouble(CDouble** cdpp, double d) {
CDouble* cdp = malloc(sizeof(CDouble));
if (cdp == NULL) {
int err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
}
cdp->type = TypeCDouble;
cdp->value = d;
*cdpp = cdp;
return 0;
}
/* Is formp a CDouble? */
bool is_cdouble(Form* formp) {
return formp->type == TypeCDouble;
}
/* CString */
/* Malloc's a CString into cspp and places sp into it.
Note: sp is not copied; cspp assumes ownership of it.
Returns 0 or errno. */
int new_cstring(CString** cspp, char* sp) {
CString* csp = malloc(sizeof(CString));
if (csp == NULL) {
int err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
}
csp->type = TypeCString;
csp->valuep = sp;
*cspp = csp;
return 0;
}
/* Is formp a CString? */
bool is_cstring(Form* formp) {
return formp->type == TypeCString;
}
/* List */
List* g_emptylist = NULL;
/* Initialize the global empty list singleton.
Asserts on failure.
Call this function once from main(). */
void list_main() {
assert(g_emptylist == NULL);
g_emptylist = malloc(sizeof(List));
assert(g_emptylist != NULL);
g_emptylist->type = TypeList;
g_emptylist->nextp = g_emptylist;
g_emptylist->datap = (Form*)g_emptylist;
}
/* Malloc's a List intp lpp, initializing it with datap.
Returns 0 or errno. */
int new_list(List** lpp, Form* datap) {
List* lp;
if (datap == NULL) {
lp = g_emptylist;
} else {
lp = malloc(sizeof(List));
if (lp == NULL) {
int err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
}
lp->type = TypeList;
lp->datap = datap;
lp->nextp = g_emptylist;
}
*lpp = lp;
return 0;
}
/* Is formp a List? */
bool is_list(Form* formp) {
return formp->type == TypeList;
}
/* Is listp the empty list? */
bool is_list_empty(List* lp) {
return lp == g_emptylist;
}
/* Push formp as the new head of listpp.
Returns 0 or errno. */
int list_push(List** listpp, Form* formp) {
List* list2p;
int err = new_list(&list2p, formp);
if (err) {
return err;
}
list2p->nextp = *listpp;
*listpp = list2p;
return 0;
}
/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
/* All of the Lisp forms. */
#ifndef _FORM_H_
#define _FORM_H_
#include <stdbool.h>
/* The list of Lisp form types. */
enum FormType_ {
_Type_UNINITIALIZED = 0,
TypeSymbol = 10,
TypeCLong = 20,
TypeCDouble = 30,
TypeCString = 40,
TypeList = 100,
};
typedef enum FormType_ FormType;
/* A type-erased Lisp form. */
struct Form_ {
FormType type;
};
typedef struct Form_ Form;
/* Symbol */
struct Symbol_ {
FormType type;
char* valuep;
};
typedef struct Symbol_ Symbol;
int new_symbol(Symbol** sympp, const char* sp);
bool is_symbol(Form* formp);
/* CLong */
struct CLong_ {
FormType type;
long value;
};
typedef struct CLong_ CLong;
int new_clong(CLong** clpp, long l);
bool is_clong(Form* formp);
/* CDouble */
struct CDouble_ {
FormType type;
double value;
};
typedef struct CDouble_ CDouble;
int new_cdouble(CDouble** cdpp, double d);
bool is_cdouble(Form* formp);
/* CString */
struct CString_ {
FormType type;
char* valuep;
};
typedef struct CString_ CString;
int new_cstring(CString** cspp, char* sp);
bool is_cstring(Form* formp);
/* List */
struct List_ {
FormType type;
Form* datap;
struct List_* nextp;
};
typedef struct List_ List;
extern List* g_emptylist;
int new_list(List** lpp, Form* datap);
bool is_list(Form* formp);
int list_push(List** listpp, Form* formp);
bool is_list_empty(List* listp);
void list_main();
#endif
/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
#include "repl.h"
#include "forms.h"
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
/* The entrypoint of this program. */
int main() {
list_main();
int err = repl();
if (err) {
fprintf(stderr, "Error %d.\n", err);
return err;
} else {
return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}
}
CC=gcc -g -std=c99 -Wall -Werror -D_POSIX_C_SOURCE=200809L
lisp: main.o forms.o reader.o eval.o printer.o repl.o
$(CC) -o lisp *.o
main.o: main.c
$(CC) -c main.c
forms.o: forms.h forms.c
$(CC) -c forms.c
reader.o: reader.h reader.c
$(CC) -c reader.c
eval.o: eval.h eval.c
$(CC) -c eval.c
printer.o: printer.h printer.c
$(CC) -c printer.c
repl.o: repl.h repl.c
$(CC) -c repl.c
clean:
rm -f *.o lisp
test: lisp
./run_tests.sh
.PHONY: clean
/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
#include "printer.h"
#include <assert.h>
#include <sys/errno.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
/* Prints the Symbol in symp into fp.
Returns 0 or errno. */
static int print_symbol(Symbol* symp, FILE* fp) {
int err = fprintf(fp, "%s", symp->valuep);
if (err < 0) {
return err;
} else {
return 0;
}
}
/* Prints the CLong in lp into fp.
Returns 0 or errno. */
static int print_clong(CLong* lp, FILE* fp) {
int err = fprintf(fp, "%li", lp->value);
if (err < 0) {
return err;
} else {
return 0;
}
}
/* Prints the CDouble in dp into fp.
Returns 0 or errno. */
static int print_cdouble(CDouble* dp, FILE* fp) {
int err = fprintf(fp, "%f", dp->value);
if (err < 0) {
return err;
} else {
return 0;
}
}
/* Is ch an unescaped char? */
bool is_unescaped(char ch) {
char* found = strchr("\a\b\e\f\n\r\t\v\\\"", (int)ch);
return found != NULL;
}
/* Returns the escaped version of unesc.
For example, if unesc is a newline, 'n' is returned.
Asserts false if unesc is not a valid escape char. */
static char escape_char(char unesc) {
if (unesc == '\a') {
return 'a';
} else if (unesc == '\b') {
return 'b';
} else if (unesc == '\e') {
return 'e';
} else if (unesc == '\f') {
return 'f';
} else if (unesc == '\n') {
return 'n';
} else if (unesc == '\r') {
return 'r';
} else if (unesc == '\t') {
return 't';
} else if (unesc == '\v') {
return 'v';
} else if (unesc == '\\') {
return '\\';
} else if (unesc == '"') {
return '"';
} else {
assert(false);
}
}
/* Escapes srcp into a malloc'ed dstpp.
Returns 0 or errno. */
static int escape_str(char* srcp, char** dstpp) {
size_t src_len = strlen(srcp);
size_t src_size = src_len + 1;
/* dst will be worst-case twice as large (every byte becomes two bytes),
so start there, then shrink to fit at the end. */
size_t dst_size = src_size * 2;
char* dstp = malloc(dst_size);
if (dstp == NULL) {
int err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
}
char* src_cursor = srcp;
char* src_last = srcp + src_len - 1;
char* dst_cursor = dstp;
size_t dst_len = 0;
while(src_cursor <= src_last) {
char ch = *src_cursor;
if (is_unescaped(ch)) {
*dst_cursor = '\\';
dst_cursor++;
*dst_cursor = escape_char(ch);
} else {
*dst_cursor = ch;
}
src_cursor++;
dst_cursor++;
dst_len++;
}
/* shrink-to-fit. */
size_t newdst_size = dst_len + 1;
char* newdstp = realloc(dstp, newdst_size);
if (newdstp == NULL) {
free(dstp);
int err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
} else {
dstp = newdstp;
}
*dstpp = dstp;
return 0;
}
/* Prints the CString in csp into fp.
Returns 0 or errno. */
static int print_cstring(CString* csp, FILE* fp) {
char* esc;
int err = escape_str(csp->valuep, &esc);
if (err) {
return err;
}
err = fprintf(fp, "\"%s\"", esc);
if (err < 0) {
return err;
} else {
return 0;
}
}
/* Prints the List in lp into fp.
Returns 0 or errno. */
static int print_list(List* lp, FILE* fp) {
int err = fputs("(", fp);
if (err == EOF) {
err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
}
List* i = lp;
while (!is_list_empty(i)) {
if (i != lp) {
err = fputs(" ", fp);
if (err == EOF) {
err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
}
}
err = print_form(i->datap, fp);
if (err) {
return err;
}
i = i->nextp;
}
err = fputs(")", fp);
if (err == EOF) {
err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
}
return 0;
}
/* Prints the Form in formp into fp.
Returns 0 or errno. */
int print_form(Form* formp, FILE* fp) {
if (is_symbol(formp)) {
Symbol* symp = (Symbol*)formp;
return print_symbol(symp, fp);
} else if (is_clong(formp)) {
CLong* lp = (CLong*)formp;
return print_clong(lp, fp);
} else if (is_cdouble(formp)) {
CDouble* dp = (CDouble*)formp;
return print_cdouble(dp, fp);
} else if (is_cstring(formp)) {
CString* csp = (CString*)formp;
return print_cstring(csp, fp);
} else if (is_list(formp)) {
List* lp = (List*)formp;
return print_list(lp, fp);
} else {
assert(false);
}
}
/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
#ifndef _PRINT_H_
#define _PRINT_H_
#include "forms.h"
#include <stdio.h>
int print_form(Form* formp, FILE* fp);
#endif
/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
#include "reader.h"
#include "errors.h"
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sys/errno.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>
/* Creates a new FBuff.
Returns 0 or errno. */
int new_fbuff(FBuff** fbpp, FILE* fp) {
FBuff* fbp = malloc(sizeof(FBuff));
if (fbp == NULL) {
int err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
}
fbp->fp = fp;
fbp->buffp = NULL;
fbp->nextp = NULL;
fbp->size = 0;
fbp->len = 0;
*fbpp = fbp;
return 0;
}
/* Frees fbp. */
void free_fbuff(FBuff* fbp) {
free(fbp->buffp);
free(fbp);
}
/* Reads the next line into fbp.
Returns 0, EOF, or errno. */
static int fbuff_getline(FBuff* fbp) {
ssize_t result = getline(&(fbp->buffp), &(fbp->size), fbp->fp);
if (result == -1) {
if (feof(fbp->fp)) {
return EOF;
} else {
result = errno;
errno = 0;
return result;
}
} else {
fbp->len = result;
fbp->nextp = fbp->buffp;
return 0;
}
}
/* Is fbp at the end of the current line? */
bool is_fbuff_eol(FBuff* fbp) {
return fbp->len == 0 || fbp->nextp == fbp->buffp + fbp->len;
}
/* Reads and consumes the next character into chp from fbp.
Returns 0, EOF, or errno. */
static int fbuff_getch(FBuff* fbp, char* chp) {
if (is_fbuff_eol(fbp)) {
int err = fbuff_getline(fbp);
if (err) {
return err;
}
}
char ch = *(fbp->nextp);
(fbp->nextp)++;
*chp = ch;
return 0;
}
/* Pushes ch back into fbp.
Asserts if used incorrectly. */
static void fbuff_ungetch(FBuff* fbp, char ch) {
assert(fbp->nextp > fbp->buffp);
fbp->nextp--;
*(fbp->nextp) = ch;
}
/* Is ch considered whitespace?
Note: commas are considered whitespace. */
static bool is_ch_ws(char ch) {
return isspace(ch) || ch == ',';
}
/* Does ch indicate the end of a token? */
static bool is_ch_delim(char ch) {
return is_ch_ws(ch) || ch == '(' || ch == ')' || ch == ';';
}
/* Does ch constitute a token on its own? */
static bool is_ch_single_character_token(char ch) {
char* p = strchr("()", (int)ch);
return (p != NULL);
}
/* Advances fbp past any leading whitespace.
Note: commas are considered whitespace.
Returns 0, EOF, or errno. */
static int fbuff_discard_ws(FBuff* fbp, int* countp) {
int err;
char ch;
int count = 0;
while (true) {
err = fbuff_getch(fbp, &ch);
if (err) {
return err;
} else if (is_ch_ws(ch)) {
count++;
continue;
} else {
fbuff_ungetch(fbp, ch);
if (countp != NULL) {
*countp = count;
}
break;
}
}
return 0;
}
/* Advances fbp past any whitespace in the current line. */
void fbuff_skip_buffered_ws(FBuff* fbp) {
while (!is_fbuff_eol(fbp) && is_ch_ws(*(fbp->nextp))) {
fbp->nextp++;
}
}
/* Is u even? */
static bool is_even(unsigned int u) {
/* if the LSB isn't set, u is even. */
return !(u & 0x1);
}
/* Advances fbp far enough to read one token (which is a string literal).
Points buffpp to a malloc'ed buffer containing the string.
Returns 0, EOF, errno, or an error code. */
static int fbuff_get_token_str(FBuff* fbp, char** buffpp) {
int err;
char ch;
/* allocate the initial buffer. */
size_t buffsize = 1000;
size_t bufflen = buffsize - 1;
char* buffp = malloc(buffsize);
if (buffp == NULL) {
err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
}
char* cursor = buffp;
/* the first char must be the opening quote. */
err = fbuff_getch(fbp, &ch);
if (err) {
free(buffp);
return err;
} else {
assert(ch == '"');
*cursor = ch;
cursor++;
}
unsigned int backslash_count = 0;
while (true) {
size_t len = cursor - buffp;
/* time to grow the buffer. */
if (len == bufflen) {
buffsize *= 2;
bufflen = buffsize - 1;
char* newbuffp = realloc(buffp, buffsize);
if (newbuffp == NULL) {
free(buffp);
err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
} else {
buffp = newbuffp;
}
}
err = fbuff_getch(fbp, &ch);
if (err) {
free(buffp);
return err;
/* this is the end of the string. */
} else if (ch == '"' && is_even(backslash_count)) {
*cursor = ch;
cursor++;
*cursor = '\0';
/* shrink buffp to fit the size of the string. */
size_t finalbuffsize = buffp - cursor + 1;
if (finalbuffsize < buffsize) {
char* finalbuffp = realloc(buffp, finalbuffsize);
if (finalbuffp == NULL) {
free(buffp);
err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
} else {
buffp = finalbuffp;
}
}
break;
/* this is a regular char. */
} else {
/* track the number of consecutive backslashes so we can
disambiguate the closing quote. */
if (ch == '\\') {
backslash_count++;
} else {
backslash_count = 0;
}
*cursor = ch;
cursor++;
}
}
*buffpp = buffp;
return 0;
}
/* Advances fbp far enough to read one token of input.
Writes the token contents to *buffpp.
In the case of a string literal, points buffpp to a malloc'ed string buffer.
Returns 0, EOF, errno, or an error code. */
static int fbuff_get_token(FBuff* fbp, char** buffpp, size_t buffsize) {
int err;
char ch;
size_t bufflen = buffsize - 1;
char* cursor = *buffpp;
/* discard any leading whitespace. */
err = fbuff_discard_ws(fbp, NULL);
if (err) {
return err;
}
/* a token must be at least one char in length. */
err = fbuff_getch(fbp, &ch);
if (err) {
return err;
/* this is a string literal. */
} else if (ch == '"') {
fbuff_ungetch(fbp, ch);
return fbuff_get_token_str(fbp, buffpp);
} else {
*cursor = ch;
cursor++;
}
/* this is a single-character token. */
if (is_ch_single_character_token(ch)) {
*cursor = '\0';
/* this is a multi-character token. read the rest of the chars. */
} else {
bool is_comment = (ch == ';');
while (true) {
size_t len = cursor - *buffpp;
/* we have run out of room. */
if (len == bufflen) {
return E_file_get_token__buff_overflow;
}
err = fbuff_getch(fbp, &ch);
/* we've reached EOF. return what we have so far. */
if (err == EOF) {
*cursor = '\0';
break;
/* there was an error reading from fp. */
} else if (err != 0) {
return err;
/* we've reached the end of this regular token. */
} else if (!is_comment && is_ch_delim(ch)) {
fbuff_ungetch(fbp, ch);
*cursor = '\0';
break;
/* we've reached the end of this comment token. */
} else if (is_comment && ch == '\n') {
/* we leave the trailing '\n' to ensure the list args are
still whitespace-separated. */
fbuff_ungetch(fbp, ch);
*cursor = '\0';
break;
/* this char is part of the token. */
} else {
*cursor = ch;
cursor++;
continue;
}
}
}
return 0;
}
/* Tries to parse a long from buffp into lp.
Returns true or false. */
static bool try_parse_long(const char* buffp, long* lp) {
char* endptr;
long l = strtol(buffp, &endptr, 10);
if (errno != 0) {
errno = 0;
return false;
} else if (endptr == buffp || *endptr != '\0') {
return false;
} else {
*lp = l;
return true;
}
}
/* Tries to parse a double from buffp intp dp.
Returns true or false. */
static bool try_parse_double(const char* buffp, double* dp) {
char* endptr;
double d = strtod(buffp, &endptr);
if (errno != 0) {
errno = 0;
return false;
} else if (endptr == buffp || *endptr != '\0') {
return false;
} else {
*dp = d;
return true;
}
}
/* Is ch in the list of escapable chars? */
static bool is_escapechar(char ch) {
char* found = strchr("abefnrtv?'\"\\", (int)ch);
return found != NULL;
}
/* Returns the "unescaped" char corresponding to the given escape char.
E.g. if esc is 'n', a newline character is returned.
Asserts false if esc is not a valid escape char. */
static char unescape_char(char esc) {
if (esc == 'a') {
return '\a';
} else if (esc == 'b') {
return '\b';
} else if (esc == 'e') {
return '\e';
} else if (esc == 'f') {
return '\f';
} else if (esc == 'n') {
return '\n';
} else if (esc == 'r') {
return '\r';
} else if (esc == 't') {
return '\t';
} else if (esc == 'v') {
return '\v';
} else if (esc == '\\') {
return '\\';
} else if (esc == '\'') {
return '\'';
} else if (esc == '"') {
return '"';
} else if (esc == '?') {
return '?';
} else {
assert(false);
}
}
/* Parses a string from buffp.
*spp is malloc'ed with a copy of the parsed string.
Returns 0 or errno or error. */
static int parse_string(const char* buffp, char** spp) {
size_t src_len = strlen(buffp);
size_t src_size = src_len + 1;
/* minimum buffp is an opening and closing quote, so we know len >= 2. */
assert(src_len >= 2);
/* first and last char must be '"'. */
if (*buffp != '"') {
return E_parse_string__invalid_string_1;
}
if (*(buffp + src_len - 1) != '"') {
return E_parse_string__invalid_string_2;
}
size_t dst_size = src_size - 2;
char* dst = malloc(dst_size);
if (dst == NULL) {
int err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
}
/* skip the opening quote. */
const char* src_first = buffp + 1;
/* skip the closing quote. */
const char* src_last = buffp + src_len - 2;
const char* src_cursor = src_first;
char* dst_cursor = dst;
while (src_cursor <= src_last) {
/* this is possibly an escape sequence. */
if (*src_cursor == '\\') {
src_cursor++;
/* the last char of the string is a backslash, which is invalid. */
if (src_cursor > src_last) {
free(dst);
return E_parse_string__invalid_string_3;
/* this is an escape sequence. */
} else if (is_escapechar(*src_cursor)) {
*dst_cursor = unescape_char(*src_cursor);
src_cursor++;
dst_cursor++;
continue;
/* this is an invalid escape sequence. */
} else {
free(dst);
return E_parse_string__invalid_string_4;
}
/* this is just a regular char. */
} else {
*dst_cursor = *src_cursor;
src_cursor++;
dst_cursor++;
continue;
}
}
*dst_cursor = '\0';
*spp = dst;
return 0;
}
/* Read all of the forms in this Lisp list.
Returns 0 or error. */
static int read_list(FBuff* fbp, Form** formpp) {
/* note: the leading '(' has already been consumed. */
int err;
int i = 0;
int ws_count;
char ch1;
List* headp = g_emptylist;
List* tailp = g_emptylist;
while (true) {
err = fbuff_discard_ws(fbp, &ws_count);
if (err) {
/* reaching EOF before ')' is an error. */
if (err == EOF) {
return E_read_list__premature_eof_1;
} else {
return err;
}
}
err = fbuff_getch(fbp, &ch1);
if (err) {
/* reaching EOF before ')' is an error. */
if (err == EOF) {
return E_read_list__premature_eof_2;
} else {
return err;
}
/* we've reached the end of the list. */
} else if (ch1 == ')') {
*formpp = (Form*)headp;
return 0;
} else {
fbuff_ungetch(fbp, ch1);
/* no space between atoms is an error. */
if (i > 0 && ws_count == 0 && is_ch_delim(ch1) == false) {
return E_read_list__missing_ws;
}
/* read the next form in the list. */
Form* formp;
err = read_form(fbp, &formp);
if (err) {
if (err == E_read_form__comment) {
continue;
} else {
/* reaching EOF before ')' is an error. */
if (err == EOF) {
return E_read_list__premature_eof_3;
} else {
return err;
}
}
/* append the form onto the list. */
} else {
List* newp;
int err = new_list(&newp, formp);
if (err) {
return err;
}
if (headp == g_emptylist) {
headp = newp;
tailp = newp;
} else {
tailp->nextp = newp;
tailp = newp;
}
}
}
i++;
}
}
/* Read one Lisp form from fp intp formpp.
Returns 0 or E_read_form__comment or EOF or errno or error. */
int read_form(FBuff* fbp, Form** formpp) {
int err;
int buffsize = 100;
char buff[buffsize];
char* buffp = buff;
char ch1;
/* read a token. */
err = fbuff_get_token(fbp, &buffp, buffsize);
if (err) {
return err;
}
ch1 = *buffp;
/* we've reached the end of input. */
if (ch1 == '\0') {
return EOF;
/* this is a comment. */
} else if (ch1 == ';') {
return E_read_form__comment;
/* a list. */
} else if (ch1 == '(') {
return read_list(fbp, formpp);
/* a list closer at this point is a syntax error. */
} else if (ch1 == ')') {
return E_read_form__unexpected_list_closer;
/* string literal. */
} else if (ch1 == '"') {
assert(buffp != buff);
char* sp;
err = parse_string(buffp, &sp);
if (err) {
free(buffp);
return err;
}
CString* csp;
err = new_cstring(&csp, sp);
if (err) {
free(buffp);
return err;
} else {
*formpp = (Form*)csp;
return 0;
}
/* the form type can't be determined from ch1 alone. */
} else {
bool success;
/* an integer literal. */
long l;
success = try_parse_long(buffp, &l);
if (success) {
CLong* clp;
err = new_clong(&clp, l);
if (err) {
return err;
} else {
*formpp = (Form*)clp;
return 0;
}
}
/* a floating-point literal. */
double d;
success = try_parse_double(buffp, &d);
if (success) {
CDouble* cdp;
err = new_cdouble(&cdp, d);
if (err) {
return err;
} else {
*formpp = (Form*)cdp;
return 0;
}
}
/* assume anything else is a symbol. */
Symbol* symp;
err = new_symbol(&symp, buffp);
if (err) {
return err;
} else {
*formpp = (Form*)symp;
return 0;
}
}
}
/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
#ifndef _READ_H_
#define _READ_H_
#include "forms.h"
#include <stdio.h>
/* A line-oriented FILE* buffer. */
struct FBuff_ {
FILE* fp;
char* buffp;
size_t size;
size_t len;
char* nextp;
};
typedef struct FBuff_ FBuff;
int new_fbuff(FBuff** fbpp, FILE* fp);
void free_fbuff(FBuff* fbp);
bool is_fbuff_eol(FBuff* fbp);
void fbuff_skip_buffered_ws(FBuff* fbp);
int read_form(FBuff* fbp, Form** formpp);
#endif
/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
#include "repl.h"
#include "errors.h"
#include "reader.h"
#include "printer.h"
#include "eval.h"
#include <stdbool.h>
#include <sys/errno.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <assert.h>
/* Is fp a tty? */
bool is_file_tty(FILE* fp) {
int result = isatty(fileno(fp));
if (result == 0) {
errno = 0;
return false;
} else {
return true;
}
}
/* Should the REPL prompt be displayed? */
bool should_display_prompt(FBuff* fbp) {
if (!is_file_tty(fbp->fp)) {
return false;
} else {
return is_fbuff_eol(fbp);
}
}
/* Starts a read-eval-print loop.
Loops until EOF or I/O error.
Returns 0 or error. */
int repl() {
FBuff* fbp;
int err = new_fbuff(&fbp, stdin);
if (err) {
return err;
}
while (true) {
fbuff_skip_buffered_ws(fbp);
if (should_display_prompt(fbp)) {
/* display the prompt. */
int err = fputs("> ", stdout);
if (err == EOF) {
free_fbuff(fbp);
err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
}
}
/* read the next Lisp form. */
Form* formp;
err = read_form(fbp, &formp);
if (err) {
if (err == EOF) {
break;
} else if (err == E_read_form__comment) {
continue;
} else {
int err2 = fprintf(stderr, "Error %d.\n", err);
if (err2 < 0) {
free_fbuff(fbp);
return err2;
}
continue;
}
}
/* evaluate the form. */
Form* resultp;
err = eval_form(formp, &resultp);
if (err) {
int err2 = fprintf(stderr, "Error %d.\n", err);
if (err2 < 0) {
free_fbuff(fbp);
return err2;
}
continue;
}
/* print the result. */
err = print_form(resultp, stdout);
if (err) {
free_fbuff(fbp);
return err;
}
err = fputs("\n", stdout);
if (err == EOF) {
free_fbuff(fbp);
err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
}
/* loop. */
continue;
}
free_fbuff(fbp);
return 0;
}
/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
#ifndef _REPL_H_
#define _REPL_H_
int repl();
#endif
#!/bin/bash
set -e -o pipefail
for f in `ls test*.input`
do
base=$(basename $f .input)
echo $base
cat ${base}.input | ./lisp > /tmp/${base}.out
diff -urN ${base}.expected /tmp/${base}.out
done
echo "all tests passed"
1
1
2
3
1.200000
foo
"foo"
"line one\nline two"
true
nil
1
1 2 3
1.2
foo
"foo"
"line one
line two"
true
nil
()
()
(1)
(1 2)
(1 2)
(1 (2 ()))
()
(
)
(1)
(1 2)
(1
2)
(1(2()))
1
1
(1 (2))
;comment
; comment
1;comment
1 ; comment
(1(;comment
2;comment
))
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