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A Lisp interpreter in C, part 3: floats

Blog 2020/1/10

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A Lisp interpreter in C, part 3: floats

Let's learn how to write a Lisp interpreter in C!

In part 3, we implement support for reading, evaluating, and printing C double floating-point numbers.

This post doesn't cover any new ground (it is nearly identical to part 2), but will set up some interesting type promotion issues for us to tackle in later posts!

Lisp forms

We add a new struct to represent C double floating-point numbers:

forms.h:

struct CDouble_ {
    FormType type;
    double value;
};
typedef struct CDouble_ CDouble;

int new_cdouble(CDouble** cdpp, double d);
bool is_cdouble(Form* formp);

and add an entry to our FormType enum:

forms.h:

 
     TypeSymbol = 10,
     TypeCLong = 20,
+    TypeCDouble = 30,
 };
 typedef enum FormType_ FormType;
 

The reader

We add a function which attempts to parse a floating-point number:

reader.c:

/* Tries to parse a double from buffp intp dp.
Returns true or false. */
static bool try_parse_double(const char* buffp, double* dp) {
    char* endptr;
    double d = strtod(buffp, &endptr);
    if (errno != 0) {
        errno = 0;
        return false;
    } else if (endptr == buffp || *endptr != '\0') {
        return false;
    } else {
        *dp = d;
        return true;
    }
}

and stitch it into read_form():

reader.c (error handling elided):

                 return 0;
             }
         }
+
+        /* a floating-point literal. */
+        double d;
+        success = try_parse_double(buffp, &d);
+        if (success) {
+            CDouble* cdp;
+            new_cdouble(&cdp, d);
+            *formpp = (Form*)cdp;
+            return 0;
+        }
 
         /* assume anything else is a symbol. */
         Symbol* symp;

The evaluator

eval.c:

 Returns 0. */
 int eval_form(Form* formp, Form** resultpp) {
     /* for now, all forms evaluate to themselves. */
-    if (is_symbol(formp) || is_clong(formp)) {
+    if (is_symbol(formp) || is_clong(formp) || is_cdouble(formp)) {
         *resultpp = formp;
         return 0;
 

The printer

We implement support for printing CDouble objects:

printer.c: (error handling elided):

/* Prints the CDouble in dp into fp.
Returns 0 or errno. */
static int print_cdouble(CDouble* dp, FILE* fp) {
    int err = fprintf(fp, "CDouble: %f", dp->value);
    return 0;
}

and stitch it into print_form():

printer.c:

     } else if (is_clong(formp)) {
         CLong* lp = (CLong*)formp;
         return print_clong(lp, fp);
+    } else if (is_cdouble(formp)) {
+        CDouble* dp = (CDouble*)formp;
+        return print_cdouble(dp, fp);
     } else {
         assert(false);
     }

Try it out

Our interpreter understands floating-point now!

$ echo foo 42 3.14 | ./lisp 
Symbol: foo
CLong: 42
CDouble: 3.140000

Next time

In part 4 we'll add support for strings!

/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
#ifndef _ERRCODE_H_
#define _ERRCODE_H_
enum ErrCode_ {
/* not an error. */
E_success = 0,
/* A catch-all "unknown" error. */
/* Note: we start at 10,000 to skip past the errno range. */
E_unknown = 10000,
/* We ran out of buffer while reading a token. */
E_file_get_token__buff_overflow = 10010,
};
typedef enum ErrCode_ ErrCode;
#endif
/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
#include "eval.h"
#include "printer.h"
#include <assert.h>
/* Evaluates formp into resultpp.
Returns 0. */
int eval_form(Form* formp, Form** resultpp) {
/* for now, all forms evaluate to themselves. */
if (is_symbol(formp) || is_clong(formp) || is_cdouble(formp)) {
*resultpp = formp;
return 0;
/* unsupported form. */
} else {
assert(false);
}
}
/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
#ifndef _EVAL_H_
#define _EVAL_H_
#include "forms.h"
int eval_form(Form* formp, Form** resultpp);
#endif
/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
/* All of the Lisp forms. */
#include "forms.h"
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sys/errno.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include <string.h>
/* Symbol */
/* Malloc's a Symbol into sympp and copies sp into it. */
int new_symbol(Symbol** sympp, const char* sp) {
Symbol* symp = malloc(sizeof(Symbol));
if (symp == NULL) {
int err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
}
symp->type = TypeSymbol;
size_t len = strlen(sp);
symp->valuep = malloc(len + 1);
if (symp->valuep == NULL) {
free(symp);
int err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
}
strcpy(symp->valuep, sp);
*sympp = symp;
return 0;
}
/* Is formp a Symbol? */
bool is_symbol(Form* formp) {
return formp->type == TypeSymbol;
}
/* CLong */
/* Malloc's a CLong into clpp, initializing it with l.
Returns 0 or errno. */
int new_clong(CLong** clpp, long l) {
CLong* clp = malloc(sizeof(CLong));
if (clp == NULL) {
int err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
}
clp->type = TypeCLong;
clp->value = l;
*clpp = clp;
return 0;
}
/* Is formp a CLong? */
bool is_clong(Form* formp) {
return formp->type == TypeCLong;
}
/* CDouble */
/* Malloc's a CDouble into cdpp, initializing it with d.
Returns 0 or errno. */
int new_cdouble(CDouble** cdpp, double d) {
CDouble* cdp = malloc(sizeof(CDouble));
if (cdp == NULL) {
int err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
}
cdp->type = TypeCDouble;
cdp->value = d;
*cdpp = cdp;
return 0;
}
/* Is formp a CDouble? */
bool is_cdouble(Form* formp) {
return formp->type == TypeCDouble;
}
/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
/* All of the Lisp forms. */
#ifndef _FORM_H_
#define _FORM_H_
#include <stdbool.h>
/* The list of Lisp form types. */
enum FormType_ {
_Type_UNINITIALIZED = 0,
TypeSymbol = 10,
TypeCLong = 20,
TypeCDouble = 30,
};
typedef enum FormType_ FormType;
/* A type-erased Lisp form. */
struct Form_ {
FormType type;
};
typedef struct Form_ Form;
/* Symbol */
struct Symbol_ {
FormType type;
char* valuep;
};
typedef struct Symbol_ Symbol;
int new_symbol(Symbol** sympp, const char* sp);
bool is_symbol(Form* formp);
/* CLong */
struct CLong_ {
FormType type;
long value;
};
typedef struct CLong_ CLong;
int new_clong(CLong** clpp, long l);
bool is_clong(Form* formp);
/* CDouble */
struct CDouble_ {
FormType type;
double value;
};
typedef struct CDouble_ CDouble;
int new_cdouble(CDouble** cdpp, double d);
bool is_cdouble(Form* formp);
#endif
/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
#include "repl.h"
#include "forms.h"
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
int main() {
int err = repl();
if (err) {
fprintf(stderr, "Error %d.\n", err);
return err;
} else {
return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}
}
CC=gcc -g -std=c99 -Wall -Werror -D_POSIX_C_SOURCE=200809L
lisp: main.o forms.o reader.o eval.o printer.o repl.o
$(CC) -o lisp *.o
main.o: main.c
$(CC) -c main.c
forms.o: forms.h forms.c
$(CC) -c forms.c
reader.o: reader.h reader.c
$(CC) -c reader.c
eval.o: eval.h eval.c
$(CC) -c eval.c
printer.o: printer.h printer.c
$(CC) -c printer.c
repl.o: repl.h repl.c
$(CC) -c repl.c
clean:
rm -f *.o lisp
test: lisp
./run_tests.sh
.PHONY: clean
/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
#include "printer.h"
#include <assert.h>
/* Prints the Symbol in symp into fp.
Returns 0 or errno. */
static int print_symbol(Symbol* symp, FILE* fp) {
int err = fprintf(fp, "Symbol: %s", symp->valuep);
if (err < 0) {
return err;
} else {
return 0;
}
}
/* Prints the CLong in lp into fp.
Returns 0 or errno. */
static int print_clong(CLong* lp, FILE* fp) {
int err = fprintf(fp, "CLong: %li", lp->value);
if (err < 0) {
return err;
} else {
return 0;
}
}
/* Prints the CDouble in dp into fp.
Returns 0 or errno. */
static int print_cdouble(CDouble* dp, FILE* fp) {
int err = fprintf(fp, "CDouble: %f", dp->value);
if (err < 0) {
return err;
} else {
return 0;
}
}
/* Prints the Form in formp into fp.
Returns 0 or errno. */
int print_form(Form* formp, FILE* fp) {
if (is_symbol(formp)) {
Symbol* symp = (Symbol*)formp;
return print_symbol(symp, fp);
} else if (is_clong(formp)) {
CLong* lp = (CLong*)formp;
return print_clong(lp, fp);
} else if (is_cdouble(formp)) {
CDouble* dp = (CDouble*)formp;
return print_cdouble(dp, fp);
} else {
assert(false);
}
}
/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
#ifndef _PRINT_H_
#define _PRINT_H_
#include "forms.h"
#include <stdio.h>
int print_form(Form* formp, FILE* fp);
#endif
/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
#include "reader.h"
#include "errors.h"
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sys/errno.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <string.h>
/* Creates a new FBuff.
Returns 0 or errno. */
int new_fbuff(FBuff** fbpp, FILE* fp) {
FBuff* fbp = malloc(sizeof(FBuff));
if (fbp == NULL) {
int err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
}
fbp->fp = fp;
fbp->buffp = NULL;
fbp->nextp = NULL;
fbp->size = 0;
fbp->len = 0;
*fbpp = fbp;
return 0;
}
/* Frees fbp. */
void free_fbuff(FBuff* fbp) {
free(fbp->buffp);
free(fbp);
}
/* Reads the next line into fbp.
Returns 0, EOF, or errno. */
static int fbuff_getline(FBuff* fbp) {
ssize_t result = getline(&(fbp->buffp), &(fbp->size), fbp->fp);
if (result == -1) {
if (feof(fbp->fp)) {
return EOF;
} else {
result = errno;
errno = 0;
return result;
}
} else {
fbp->len = result;
fbp->nextp = fbp->buffp;
return 0;
}
}
/* Is fbp at the end of the current line? */
bool is_fbuff_eol(FBuff* fbp) {
return fbp->len == 0 || fbp->nextp == fbp->buffp + fbp->len;
}
/* Reads and consumes the next character into chp from fbp.
Returns 0, EOF, or errno. */
static int fbuff_getch(FBuff* fbp, char* chp) {
if (is_fbuff_eol(fbp)) {
int err = fbuff_getline(fbp);
if (err) {
return err;
}
}
char ch = *(fbp->nextp);
(fbp->nextp)++;
*chp = ch;
return 0;
}
/* Pushes ch back into fbp.
Asserts if used incorrectly. */
static void fbuff_ungetch(FBuff* fbp, char ch) {
assert(fbp->nextp > fbp->buffp);
fbp->nextp--;
*(fbp->nextp) = ch;
}
/* Is ch considered whitespace?
Note: commas are considered whitespace. */
static bool is_ch_ws(char ch) {
return isspace(ch) || ch == ',';
}
/* Advances fbp past any leading whitespace.
Note: commas are considered whitespace.
Returns 0, EOF, or errno. */
static int fbuff_discard_ws(FBuff* fbp) {
int err;
char ch;
while (true) {
err = fbuff_getch(fbp, &ch);
if (err) {
return err;
} else if (is_ch_ws(ch)) {
continue;
} else {
fbuff_ungetch(fbp, ch);
break;
}
}
return 0;
}
/* Advances fbp past any whitespace in the current line. */
void fbuff_skip_buffered_ws(FBuff* fbp) {
while (!is_fbuff_eol(fbp) && is_ch_ws(*(fbp->nextp))) {
fbp->nextp++;
}
}
/* Does ch indicate the end of a token? */
static bool is_ch_delim(char ch) {
return is_ch_ws(ch);
}
/* Advances fbp far enough to read one token of input.
Writes the token contents to *buffpp.
Returns 0, EOF, errno, or an error code. */
static int fbuff_get_token(FBuff* fbp, char** buffpp, size_t buffsize) {
int err;
char ch;
size_t bufflen = buffsize - 1;
char* cursor = *buffpp;
/* discard any leading whitespace. */
err = fbuff_discard_ws(fbp);
if (err) {
return err;
}
/* a token must be at least one char in length. */
err = fbuff_getch(fbp, &ch);
if (err) {
return err;
}
*cursor = ch;
cursor++;
/* the rest of the chars. */
while (true) {
size_t len = cursor - *buffpp;
/* we have run out of room. */
if (len == bufflen) {
return E_file_get_token__buff_overflow;
}
err = fbuff_getch(fbp, &ch);
/* we've reached EOF. return what we have so far. */
if (err == EOF) {
*cursor = '\0';
break;
/* there was an error reading from fp. */
} else if (err != 0) {
return err;
/* we've reached the end of this token. */
} else if (is_ch_delim(ch)) {
fbuff_ungetch(fbp, ch);
*cursor = '\0';
break;
/* this char is part of the token. */
} else {
*cursor = ch;
cursor++;
continue;
}
}
return 0;
}
/* Tries to parse a long from buffp into lp.
Returns true or false. */
static bool try_parse_long(const char* buffp, long* lp) {
char* endptr;
long l = strtol(buffp, &endptr, 10);
if (errno != 0) {
errno = 0;
return false;
} else if (endptr == buffp || *endptr != '\0') {
return false;
} else {
*lp = l;
return true;
}
}
/* Tries to parse a double from buffp intp dp.
Returns true or false. */
static bool try_parse_double(const char* buffp, double* dp) {
char* endptr;
double d = strtod(buffp, &endptr);
if (errno != 0) {
errno = 0;
return false;
} else if (endptr == buffp || *endptr != '\0') {
return false;
} else {
*dp = d;
return true;
}
}
/* Read one Lisp form from fp intp formpp.
Returns 0 or EOF or errno or error code. */
int read_form(FBuff* fbp, Form** formpp) {
int err;
int buffsize = 100;
char buff[buffsize];
char* buffp = buff;
char ch1;
/* read a token. */
err = fbuff_get_token(fbp, &buffp, buffsize);
if (err) {
return err;
}
ch1 = *buffp;
/* we've reached the end of input. */
if (ch1 == '\0') {
return EOF;
} else {
bool success;
/* an integer literal. */
long l;
success = try_parse_long(buffp, &l);
if (success) {
CLong* clp;
err = new_clong(&clp, l);
if (err) {
return err;
} else {
*formpp = (Form*)clp;
return 0;
}
}
/* a floating-point literal. */
double d;
success = try_parse_double(buffp, &d);
if (success) {
CDouble* cdp;
err = new_cdouble(&cdp, d);
if (err) {
return err;
} else {
*formpp = (Form*)cdp;
return 0;
}
}
/* assume anything else is a symbol. */
Symbol* symp;
err = new_symbol(&symp, buffp);
if (err) {
return err;
} else {
*formpp = (Form*)symp;
return 0;
}
}
}
/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
#ifndef _READ_H_
#define _READ_H_
#include "forms.h"
#include <stdio.h>
/* A line-oriented FILE* buffer. */
struct FBuff_ {
FILE* fp;
char* buffp;
size_t size;
size_t len;
char* nextp;
};
typedef struct FBuff_ FBuff;
int new_fbuff(FBuff** fbpp, FILE* fp);
void free_fbuff(FBuff* fbp);
bool is_fbuff_eol(FBuff* fbp);
void fbuff_skip_buffered_ws(FBuff* fbp);
int read_form(FBuff* fbp, Form** formpp);
#endif
/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
#include "repl.h"
#include "reader.h"
#include "printer.h"
#include "eval.h"
#include <stdbool.h>
#include <sys/errno.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <unistd.h>
/* Is fp a tty? */
bool is_file_tty(FILE* fp) {
int result = isatty(fileno(fp));
if (result == 0) {
errno = 0;
return false;
} else {
return true;
}
}
/* Should the REPL prompt be displayed? */
bool should_display_prompt(FBuff* fbp) {
if (!is_file_tty(fbp->fp)) {
return false;
} else {
return is_fbuff_eol(fbp);
}
}
/* Starts a read-eval-print loop.
Loops until EOF or I/O error.
Returns 0 or error. */
int repl() {
FBuff* fbp;
int err = new_fbuff(&fbp, stdin);
if (err) {
return err;
}
while (true) {
fbuff_skip_buffered_ws(fbp);
if (should_display_prompt(fbp)) {
/* display the prompt. */
int err = fputs("> ", stdout);
if (err == EOF) {
free_fbuff(fbp);
err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
}
}
/* read the next Lisp form. */
Form* formp;
err = read_form(fbp, &formp);
if (err) {
if (err == EOF) {
break;
} else {
int err2 = fprintf(stderr, "Error %d.\n", err);
if (err2 < 0) {
free_fbuff(fbp);
return err2;
}
continue;
}
}
/* evaluate the form. */
Form* resultp;
err = eval_form(formp, &resultp);
if (err) {
int err2 = fprintf(stderr, "Error %d.\n", err);
if (err2 < 0) {
free_fbuff(fbp);
return err2;
}
continue;
}
/* print the result. */
err = print_form(resultp, stdout);
if (err) {
free_fbuff(fbp);
return err;
}
err = fputs("\n", stdout);
if (err == EOF) {
free_fbuff(fbp);
err = errno;
errno = 0;
return err;
}
/* loop. */
continue;
}
free_fbuff(fbp);
return 0;
}
/* This file is Copyright (C) 2019 Jason Pepas. */
/* This file is released under the terms of the MIT License. */
/* See https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT */
#ifndef _REPL_H_
#define _REPL_H_
int repl();
#endif
#!/bin/bash
set -e -o pipefail
for f in `ls test*.input`
do
base=$(basename $f .input)
echo $base
cat ${base}.input | ./lisp > /tmp/${base}.out
diff -urN ${base}.expected /tmp/${base}.out
done
echo "all tests passed"
CLong: 1
CLong: 1
CLong: 2
CLong: 3
CDouble: 1.200000
Symbol: foo
Symbol: "foo"
Symbol: "line
Symbol: one
Symbol: line
Symbol: two"
Symbol: true
Symbol: nil
1
1 2 3
1.2
foo
"foo"
"line one
line two"
true
nil
Symbol: ()
Symbol: (
Symbol: )
Symbol: (1)
Symbol: (1
Symbol: 2)
Symbol: (1
Symbol: 2)
Symbol: (1(2()))
()
(
)
(1)
(1 2)
(1
2)
(1(2()))
Symbol: ;comment
Symbol: ;
Symbol: comment
Symbol: 1;comment
CLong: 1
Symbol: ;
Symbol: comment
Symbol: (1(;comment
Symbol: 2;comment
Symbol: ))
;comment
; comment
1;comment
1 ; comment
(1(;comment
2;comment
))
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