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Last active May 3, 2018 16:04
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Chicago Ward Remap Outlines

Created by Christopher Manning


The wards in Chicago were recently remapped and I was mesmerized by the idea of creating an interaction that would animate the transition from the old to the new wards. I shortly found out that tweening polygons in a non-intersecting and interlocked fashion is a complicated topic. I've done a lot of reading about the math and research that has been done in this space and found a few interesting theories which I would like to implement in a future version. Currently, the morphing/tweening/interpolation is done with an array interpolator. Unfortunately, this technique causes the intermediate polygons to self-intersect and morph inefficiently. Ideally, I would overlay these polygons on a slippy map and there would be no gaps between the polygons during the morphing.

Overall, I am happy with the way this prototype came out and how it highlights the need for more robust polygon morphing. I am excited to see what the map transition will look like when a more fluid animation is implemented.


  • Drag the slider to morph the wards
  • Click and drag to move the map
  • Use the mousewheel to zoom
  • Click on a ward to change the shading
  • Click the Chicago star to change the layout
  • Hover over the ward to see its number and to highlight the ward
  • Click one set of the years to animate the transition between the wards
  • Start in map view

Points of Interest

  • The 2nd ward travels away from where it once was and now encompasses an entirely different area.
  • The morph of the 9th ward demonstrates why using a shortest path vertex transformation is misleading.
  • There is a hole in the 2005 19th ward that will be removed in 2015.
  • The morph of the 19th ward is comically inefficient and demonstrates how inadequate a naive interpolater is.
  • The 41st ward(O'Hare) is huge. It dwarfs the 44th ward which I previously thought was much bigger.
  • When you click the star to switch to the map view, click a ward to change the ward color to black, and zoom in; you can see how the polygon simplification causes small gaps between the wards where more vertices would have been required to make the edges seamless.
  • Every ward's boundary changed.


  • The GeoJSON files were simplified with ogr2ogr using a tolerance of .001 to improve rendering performance
  • The 19th and 41st wards were reduced from a MultiPolygon to a Polygon to make morphing work with the array interpolator


View this gist at

<html lang="en">
<title>Chicago Ward Remap Outlines</title>
<script src="//"></script>
<script type="text/javascript" src=""></script>
<script type="text/javascript" src=""></script>
<style type="text/css">
body {
color: #333;
.years, #star {
cursor: pointer
#wards path {
stroke-width: 0.5;
.ward-outline {
fill: white;
stroke: black;
.ward-fill {
fill: black;
stroke: white;
<div id="vis"></div>
<script type="text/javascript">
$(function() {
function getParameterByName(name) {
name = name.replace(/[\[]/, "\\\[").replace(/[\]]/, "\\\]");
var regexS = "[\\?&]" + name + "=([^&#]*)";
var regex = new RegExp(regexS);
var results = regex.exec(parent.window.location.href);
if(results == null)
return "";
return decodeURIComponent(results[1].replace(/\+/g, " "));
var alignToGrid = getParameterByName('map') == 1 ? false : true
var geometryCache = []
var projection_scale = 199466
var projection_translate = [49047.505335748254, 25762.791692685558]
var w = 960
var h = 425
var proj = d3.geo.mercator().scale(projection_scale).translate(projection_translate)
var path = d3.geo.path().projection(proj)
var t = proj.translate()
var s = proj.scale()
var wards_json = []
var map ="#vis").append("svg:svg").attr("width", w).attr("height", h).call(d3.behavior.zoom().scaleExtent([1, 8]).on("zoom", drawWards))
var wards = map.append("svg:g").attr("id", "wards")
var originalBBoxes = []
d3.json("wards_2005.json", function(json) {
wards_json.push([json.features.filter(function(d) {
return parseInt(
}).sort(function(a, b) {
return -
d3.json("wards_2015.json", function(json) {
var wardIndex = 0
wards_json.push([ {
//pad the arrays so they have the same number of vertices so morphing doesn't create artifacts
prevCoordinates = wards_json[0][0][wardIndex++].geometry.coordinates[0]
coordinates = d.geometry.coordinates[0]
for (i = prevCoordinates.length; i < coordinates.length; ++i) prevCoordinates.push(prevCoordinates[0])
for (i = coordinates.length; i < prevCoordinates.length; ++i) coordinates.push(coordinates[0])
return {'type': 'Feature', 'geometry': {'type': "Polygon", 'coordinates': [coordinates]}, 'properties':}
}).sort(function(a, b) {
return -
dataWards = wards.selectAll("path").data(wards_json[0][0], function(d) {
return parseInt(
function transformWard(d, i) {
if (!alignToGrid) return
//there isn't an easy way to absolutely position a path in a SVG
x = ( - 1) % 10
y = Math.floor(( - 1) / 10)
xOffset = 50 / 2 - this.getBBox().width / 2
xOffset = xOffset < 6 ? 6 : xOffset
yOffset = 50 / 2 - this.getBBox().height / 2
yOffset = yOffset < 1 ? 36 : yOffset + 36
//need to know where we originally positioned it so we can move map relative to that original position
if(originalBBoxes[i] == null) originalBBoxes[i] = this.getBBox()
//calculations are from the top left i.e. 0,0
return "translate(" + (-originalBBoxes[i].x + xOffset + (proj.scale()/2000 * x)) + ", " + (-originalBBoxes[i].y + yOffset + (proj.scale()/2500 * y)) + ")"
function drawWards() {
if (d3.event != null) {
proj.translate([t[0] * d3.event.scale + d3.event.translate[0], t[1] * d3.event.scale + d3.event.translate[1]])
proj.scale(s * d3.event.scale)
//so wards aren't added when the map moves
if($("#wards path").length == 0) {
dataWards.enter().append("svg:path").attr("class","ward-outline").attr("d", function(d) {
return path(d.geometry)
}).attr("transform", transformWard).append("svg:title").text(function(d, i) {
wards.selectAll("path").attr("d", function(d, i) {
return path(geometryCache[i] == null ? d.geometry : geometryCache[i])
}).attr("transform", transformWard).on("mouseover", function(){
if($(this).attr("class") == "ward-outline"){
$(this).attr("class", "ward-fill")
} else {
$(this).attr("class", "ward-outline")
}).on("mouseout", function(){
if($(this).attr("class") == "ward-outline"){
$(this).attr("class", "ward-fill")
} else {
$(this).attr("class", "ward-outline")
}).on("click", function(){
if($(this).attr("class") == "ward-outline"){
$("#wards path").attr("class", "ward-outline")
$(this).attr("class", "ward-fill")
} else {
$("#wards path").attr("class", "ward-fill")
$(this).attr("class", "ward-outline")
$("#star").toggle(function() {
alignToGrid = false
}, function() {
alignToGrid = true
$("#morphs").change(function() {
val = $(this).val()
wards.selectAll("path").attr("d", function(d, i) {
//so the shape is maintained when scaling/translating the map
geometryCache[i] = {'type': "Polygon", 'coordinates': [d3.interpolate(wards_json[0][0][ - 1].geometry.coordinates[0], wards_json[1][0][ - 1].geometry.coordinates[0])(val)]}
return path(geometryCache[i])
$(".years").click(function(){"#morphs").transition().ease("sin").duration(2000).tween("withchange", function() {
return function(t) {
}).attr("value", $(this).text() == "2005-2014" ? 0 : 1)
<div style="text-align:center;font-size: 19px;">
<span class="years">2005-2014</span>
<input id="morphs" type="range" min="0" max="1" step=".01" value="0" style="vertical-align: bottom"/>
<span class="years">2015-2025</span>
<br><span id="star" style="color:#C00000;font-size:32px;">&#x2736;</span>
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