Skip to content

Instantly share code, notes, and snippets.

Last active July 4, 2023 13:55
Show Gist options
  • Save dz4k/c6829e42066a5fba64238a68cf41abd7 to your computer and use it in GitHub Desktop.
Save dz4k/c6829e42066a5fba64238a68cf41abd7 to your computer and use it in GitHub Desktop.

Intentionally Unscalable

Deniz Akşimşek, 2021-11-22

_hyperscript is intentionally unscalable. We make decisions that would be obviously inadvisable to anyone looking to make scalable software, and dismiss features like reactivity that seem to have proven themselves in this regard. To understand why, I examine and critique the concept of "scalable".

Scalability refers to the ability of a system to handle more work given more resources. This definition matches both formal definitions and common use in application development circles. Given this definition, we can see that:

  • Scalability is unidirectional --- it only refers to scaling up, never scaling down. In fact, I never hear "scaling down" discussed at all. Declaring it out-of-scope to ascribe this to a wider culture of growth, I'll just speculate that perhaps scaling down is assumed to be trivial, or not necessary as a system that handles a large amount of work can necessarily handle a small amount, adequately, without modification.
  • When people talk about the scalability of a tool, they are usually employing metonymy1. They are discussing the impact of the tool on other systems' scalability (will _hyperscript hinder us as we get more users/our app gets more complex?) and not the scalability of the tool itself (can we get hyperscript to run N lines of code in T time with better hardware?)
  • System, work, resources --- a software development team consists of multiple systems using multiple kinds of resources to do multiple kinds of work. Which system is being discussed is usually clear through context, but we should be aware when "scalable" is used without such context.
System More Work Resources
Software Serve more users. Computers.
Team Add complexity to the software and maintain it. Time, money.
The two main systems in a software organization.

Why is scalability desired?

  1. "As our app gets more complex, X will prevent us from growing and maintaining it".

    There is an assumption that your app will get more complex and partly that complexity is an environmental factor, as opposed to a consequence of the team's choices. Growing a codebase is adding complexity. Lamenting not being able to do that seems odd given the amount of lip service we pay to the glory of removing complexity.

  2. "As we get more users, the app we built with X will need rewriting".

    There is an assumption that we will get more users. If this is true, and the organization containing the team has an actual monetization strategy, then it follows that we will also get more money. If we need to build an app that serves N users eventually, does it not make sense to do so when you have F(N-ε) dollars? My more business-savvy friend Ben Pate informs me that "many million-user budgets have been wasted doing that [building a million-user system before you have any users at all]", and that "You won’t get a billion users until you first earn a thousand".

    I don't know shit about running a company, but I reject designing our tools for startups that eat some VC money, don't generate profit or any benefit for humanity, and get sold for the advertising value of their data.

    And what's so bad about rewriting anyway? I thought programmers liked writing code.2 We again pay lip service to how code is the easy part, and how legacy code sucks... Erlang has the famous "let it crash", anticipating issues and focusing on recovering from failure instead of preventing it. We can apply a similar concept: "write to rewrite".

    I originally said this much more pithily: "if you are certain you'll grow to 1 billion users, and you need an app that can handle that, why build it now on a startup budget when you're going to have the budget of a 1B-user app soon"

    The way that the "we'll need rewriting" argument assumes growth, but rejects relying on it reminds me of paying people in shares. If you can't trust it enough to just pay me the money you'll definitely make back, why should I?

Write to rewrite

Expect that you might need to rewrite your code, and be considerate of your future self who is doing that. _hyperscript helps you do this in two ways:

  • Readability over writability. The fact that _hyperscript code examples look like plain English is just as much an achievement of the author as it is _hyperscript's. We do not do anything smart like Natural Language Processing; _hyperscript uses common and normal parsing techniques. C++, Perl, perhaps even Ruby have more complex grammars than _hyperscript. We give you tools like the prop of object and object's prop syntax. and the it variable that might seem magical but is actually little more than the accumulator register in an 8-bit processor. It is up to you the programmer to use these tools to create readable code. The burden you take upon your shoulders can include (but will not be limited to):

    • Choosing between rates of the result's data, its data.rates, or
    • Breaking up long expressions into statements. Besides readability and English-like flow, this is also good for stepping through with a debugger (yet another tool for a rewriter to understand the code).
    • Reordering statements to make efficient use of it. If we do this consistently, code that doesn't do this will stick out as order-dependent and vulnerable to race conditions.
  • Locality of behavior. Ever looked through a GitHub repo, not been able to find the code you were looking for, eventually clone the repo locally and start "Jump to Definition"-ing and "Peek References"-ing your way towards your target, only to find out it's a wrapper for yet another function? If it is a Java project, I usually give up before reaching any source code files at all. Htmx "Carson" Org has written about Locality of Behavior previously, so I'll direct you there.


I recall what I now know to be an urban legend about the great architect Mimar Sinan. Supposedly, when the keystones of some arches in a mosque he built were yielding to old age, an engineer working on the restorations found a note in a bottle signed by Koca Mimar Sinan Ağa himself. It was a step-by-step guide on how to replace the keystone without disruption to the rest of the structure, complete with drawings.

Putting aside the implication that our modern architects don't know how stone arches are built, and that Great Sinan Agha The Architect expected such architects to restore his works, this fictional Mimar Sinan clearly doesn't know anything about scalability. If he did, he would predict when the Sultan would die and make the mosque last exactly that long.

When asked what their language is good for, many designers would say “everything” which really means “nothing”.

-- Robert Nystrom, What I Learned at the Emerging Languages Camp

Nystrom said this in the context of choosing a niche for your language, but I believe it applies just as well to choosing a scale.


  1. I was excited when looking up this word on Tureng, but "metonymy" doesn't really have the barebones simplicity of the Turkish "ad aktarması" or the weight of the Arabic loan "mecaz-ı mürsel".

  2. I'm aware that some people do programming purely as a job. I sometimes envy the indifference I imagine they have towards our petty squabbles.

Copy link

hudon commented Feb 20, 2023

_hyperscript is intentionally unscalable. We make decisions that would be obviously inadvisable to anyone looking to make scalable software

What are examples of this? I've looked at the surface of hyperscript, and this doesn't seem obvious to me

Copy link

Indeed, I do not believe hyperscript to be unscalable, quite contrary - alongside server-rendered templates hyperscript is much more scalable than React, at least in a point of behavior locality

Sign up for free to join this conversation on GitHub. Already have an account? Sign in to comment