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Programming Challenge: Launch 4 threads, goroutines, coroutines, or whatever your language uses for concurrency, in addition to the main thread. In the first 3, add numbers together (see sample code below) and pass the results to the 4th thread. That 4th thread should receive the 3 results, add the numbers together, format the results as a strin…
// Steve Phillips / elimisteve
// 2013.01.03
package main
import "fmt"
// intDoubler doubles the given int, then sends it through the given channel
func intDoubler(ch chan int, n int) {
ch <- n*2
}
func main() {
// Make channel of ints
ch := make(chan int)
answer := make(chan string)
// Spawn 3 goroutines (basically threads) to process data in background
go intDoubler(ch, 10)
go intDoubler(ch, 20)
go func(a, b int) { ch <- a+b }(30, 40) // Take 2 ints, write sum to `ch`
// Create anonymous function on the fly, launch as goroutine!
go func() {
// Save the 3 values passed through the channel as x, y, and z
x, y, z := <-ch, <-ch, <-ch
// Calculate answer, write to `answer` channel
answer <- fmt.Sprintf("%d + %d + %d = %d", x, y, z, x+y+z)
}()
// Print answer resulting from channel read
fmt.Printf("%s\n", <-answer)
}
@ocharles
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ocharles commented Jan 5, 2013

Another Haskell solution, this one uses sparks and Control.Parallel

import Control.Parallel

main :: IO ()
main = putStrLn . show $ a `par` b `par` c `par` result `par` result
  where double = (2 *)
        a = double 10
        b = double 20
        c = 30 + 40
        result = a + b + c

And running it:

./parallel +RTS -N2 -sstderr
130
          55,188 bytes allocated in the heap
              20 bytes copied during GC
          45,692 bytes maximum residency (1 sample(s))
          23,940 bytes maximum slop
               2 MB total memory in use (0 MB lost due to fragmentation)

                                    Tot time (elapsed)  Avg pause  Max pause
  Gen  0         0 colls,     0 par    0.00s    0.00s     0.0000s    0.0000s
  Gen  1         1 colls,     0 par    0.00s    0.00s     0.0001s    0.0001s

  Parallel GC work balance: -nan% (serial 0%, perfect 100%)

  TASKS: 4 (1 bound, 3 peak workers (3 total), using -N2)

  SPARKS: 4 (0 converted, 0 overflowed, 0 dud, 0 GC'd, 4 fizzled)

  INIT    time    0.00s  (  0.00s elapsed)
  MUT     time    0.00s  (  0.00s elapsed)
  GC      time    0.00s  (  0.00s elapsed)
  EXIT    time    0.00s  (  0.00s elapsed)
  Total   time    0.00s  (  0.00s elapsed)

  Alloc rate    596,150,106 bytes per MUT second

  Productivity  87.6% of total user, 211.7% of total elapsed

@graue
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graue commented Jan 5, 2013

Hmm, the Haskell versions don't seem to output what they're supposed to, which is the string

20 + 40 + 70 = 130

with a newline. @elimisteve's Go, @jeena's Erlang, @danielsz's Clojure and my Rust all print it like this and @anarazel's C is close but also prints "data: " in front. However, @jonte and @ocharles, your Haskell versions seem to only print 130.

@esd
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esd commented Jan 6, 2013

I don't mean to bash @jeena's nice Erlang code, but here is my quick take on it:

-module (foo).
-compile (export_all).

collect_3(Target, [X, Y, Z] = L) ->
    Target ! io_lib:format("~w + ~w + ~w = ~w~n", [Z, Y, X, lists:sum(L)]);
collect_3(Target, L) ->
    receive V -> collect_3(Target, [V | L]) end.

main() ->
    Collector = spawn(?MODULE, collect_3, [self(), []]),
    spawn(fun() -> Collector ! 10 * 2 end),
    spawn(fun() -> Collector ! 20 * 2 end),
    spawn(fun() -> Collector ! 30 + 40 end),
    receive X -> io:format(X) end.

Example:

$ erl
1> c(foo).
{ok,foo}
2> foo:main().
20 + 40 + 70 = 130
ok
3>

@yoavrubin
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yoavrubin commented Jan 6, 2013

Here's another one with Clojure

(let [v (pmap #(eval %) '[(* 2 10)(* 2 20)(+ 30 40)])]
(println @(future (str (reduce #(str %1 "+" %2) v) "=" (reduce + v)))))

@nizox
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nizox commented Jan 6, 2013

One line with bash!

(expr 10 \* 2 & expr 20 \* 2 & expr 30 \+ 40) | (read a; read b; read c; echo "\"$a + $b + $c = \"; $a + $b + $c" | bc)

@mnicky
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mnicky commented Jan 7, 2013

@yoavrubin: the first line of your Clojure example can be made even more succint and clear:

(let [v (pvalues (* 2 10) (* 2 20) (+ 30 40))]

And using a function instead of let, it can also be made an one-liner:

(println @(future (#(str (apply str (interpose \+ %)) \= (apply + %)) (pvalues (* 2 10) (* 2 20) (+ 30 40)))))

When squeezed as much as possible (and loosing a clarity), it also fits into the one line of a gist comment:

(print@(future(#(str(apply str(interpose\+%))\=(apply +%))(pvalues(* 2 10)(* 2 20)(+ 30 40)))))

@kevinstapleton
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kevinstapleton commented Jan 7, 2013

using System;
using System.Linq;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

class Program
{
    static void Main(string[] args)
    {
        Console.WriteLine(
            Task.WhenAll(
                Task.Run(() => 10 * 2), Task.Run(() => 20 * 2), Task.Run(() => 30 + 40))
            .ContinueWith(t => string.Join(" + ", t.Result) + " = " + t.Result.Sum()).Result
        );
    }
}

@elimisteve
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Author

elimisteve commented Jan 7, 2013

Awesome guys, these are great.

@nizox Other than using ampersands to background processes, I didn't know it was so easy to do asynchronous programming at the command line. Sweet.

@aeonshifter I can see why using C# is much nicer than Java.

Looks like I'm gonna have to step up my game and make my Go example more succinct...

@elimisteve
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elimisteve commented Jan 7, 2013

package main

import "fmt"

func main() {
    ch := make(chan int)
    answer := make(chan string)

    intDoubler := func(n int) { ch <- n*2 }
    go intDoubler(10)
    go intDoubler(20)
    go func(a, b int) { ch <- a+b }(30, 40)

    go func() {
        x, y, z := <-ch, <-ch, <-ch
        answer <- fmt.Sprintf("%d + %d + %d = %d", x, y, z, x+y+z)
    }()

    fmt.Printf("%s\n", <-answer)
}

@elimisteve
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elimisteve commented Jan 7, 2013

Bending the rules a bit, similar to other examples...

package main

func main() {
    ch := make(chan int)

    go func(a int)    { ch <- a*2 }(10)
    go func(a int)    { ch <- a*2 }(20)
    go func(a, b int) { ch <- a+b }(30, 40)

    x, y, z := <-ch, <-ch, <-ch
    println(x, "+", y, "+", z, "=", x+y+z)
}

@gholms
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gholms commented Jan 8, 2013

I'm noticing a distinct lack of python here. :P

from concurrent.futures import Future, ThreadPoolExecutor

def fmt_sum(*int_futures):
    ints = tuple(map(Future.result, int_futures))
    return ' + '.join(map(str, ints)) + ' = ' + str(sum(ints))

with ThreadPoolExecutor(max_workers=4) as tp:
    a = tp.submit(lambda x: x * 2, 10)
    b = tp.submit(lambda x: x * 2, 20)
    c = tp.submit(lambda x, y: x + y, 30, 40)
    d = tp.submit(fmt_sum, a, b, c)

print(d.result())

@bstrie
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bstrie commented Jan 8, 2013

Here's an update of the Rust solution:

use task::spawn;

fn main() {
    let (port, chan) = pipes::stream();
    let chan = pipes::SharedChan(chan);

    let (s1, s2, s3) = (chan.clone(), chan.clone(), chan.clone());
    do spawn { s1.send( (|a: int| a*2)(10) ) }
    do spawn { s2.send( (|a: int| a*2)(20) ) }
    do spawn { s3.send( (|a: int, b: int| a+b)(30, 40) ) }

    let (x, y, z) = (port.recv(), port.recv(), port.recv());
    io::println(fmt!("%d + %d + %d = %d", x, y, z, x+y+z));
}

@bstrie
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bstrie commented Jan 8, 2013

Oh hey, turns out Rust has a futures library after all:

extern mod std;
use std::future::spawn;

fn main() {
    let p1 = do spawn { (|a: int| a*2)(10) },
        p2 = do spawn { (|a: int| a*2)(20) },
        p3 = do spawn { (|a: int, b: int| a+b)(30, 40) };

    let (x, y, z) = (p1.get(), p2.get(), p3.get());
    io::println(fmt!("%d + %d + %d = %d", x, y, z, x+y+z));
}

@rntz
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rntz commented Jan 8, 2013

A shorter (but still readable) Haskell solution using ForkIO. Also, formatted as requested.

import Control.Concurrent
import Data.List (intercalate)

main = do
  ch <- newChan
  answer <- newEmptyMVar
  mapM (\e -> forkIO $ seq e $ writeChan ch e)
       [10 * 2, 20 * 2, 30 + 40]
  forkIO $ do nums <- mapM readChan [ch,ch,ch]
              let ans = intercalate " + " (map show nums)
                        ++ " = " ++ show (sum nums)
              seq ans $ putMVar answer ans
  putStrLn =<< takeMVar answer

Haskell's laziness has to be carefully considered to ensure that the multiplications & additions run on the right thread. forkIO isn't really designed for scheduling pure computations onto multiple threads; par is probably a better choice here. I checked the above using Debug.Trace and myThreadId, and it seems to do the right thing.

@charl
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charl commented Jan 9, 2013

Ruby (works in MRI, RBX and Jruby):

require "rubygems"
require "celluloid"

ws = []
times_two = lambda { |x| x * 2 }
ws << Celluloid::Future.new { times_two.call(10) }
ws << Celluloid::Future.new { times_two.call(20) }
ws << Celluloid::Future.new { lambda { |x,y| x + y }.call(30, 40) }
r = Celluloid::Future.new do
  vs = ws.map { |w| w.value }
  "#{vs.join(" + ")} = #{vs.reduce(:+)}"
end

puts r.value

@tzach
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tzach commented Jan 9, 2013

Slight variation on Yoav (excellent) Clojure solution, replacing the eval with pcalls to functions.

(let [v (pcalls #(* 2 10) #(* 2 20) #(+ 30 40))] 
   (println @(future (str (reduce #(str %1 "+" %2) v) "=" (reduce + v)))))

Just notice @mnicky had even better solution with pvalues...

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ghost commented Jan 10, 2013

Mozart/Oz:

functor
import
    Application System
define X Y Z S in
    thread X =  2 * 10 end
    thread Y =  2 * 20 end
    thread Z = 30 + 40 end

    thread S = X#" + "#Y#" + "#Z#" = "#(X + Y + Z) end

    {System.showInfo S}
    {Application.exit 0}
end

@mikera
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mikera commented Jan 16, 2013

Another Clojure example, this time with a bit of macro meta-programming to give us a beautiful syntax:

(defmacro go [& body] `@(future ~@body))

(go (+ (go (* 2 10)) 
       (go (* 2 20))
       (go (+ 30 40))))

@velvia
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velvia commented Jan 24, 2013

You're really missing a Scala example.

import concurrent.Future
  for (a <- Future { 2 * 10 };
       b <- Future { 2 * 20 };
       c <- Future { 30 + 40 };
       sum <- Future { a + b + c })
  { println(s"$a + $b + $c = $sum") }

That's pretty readable.

@velvia
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velvia commented Jan 24, 2013

And the console output:

scala> :paste
// Entering paste mode (ctrl-D to finish)

  for (a <- Future { 2 * 10 };
        b <- Future { 2 * 20 };
        c <- Future { 30 + 40 };
        sum <- Future { a + b + c })
  { println(s"$a + $b + $c = $sum") }

// Exiting paste mode, now interpreting.


scala> 20 + 40 + 70 = 130

@vsrinivas
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vsrinivas commented Apr 2, 2013

C, written in an archaic style, likely would work on an early UNIX system.

#include <sys/wait.h>

#include <stdio.h>
#include <unistd.h>

int intDoubler(i)
     int i;
{
        return i * 2;
}

int intAdder2(i, j)
     int i, j;
{
        return i + j;
}

int intAdder3(i, j, k)
     int i, j, k;
{
        return i + j + k;
}

int main(argc, argv)
     int argc;
     char *argv[];
{
        int answer;
        int i, j, k;

        switch (fork()) {
        case 0:
                switch (fork()) {
                case 0:
                        return intDoubler(10);
                default:
                        break;
                }

                switch (fork()) {
                case 0:
                        return intDoubler(20);
                default:
                        break;
                }

                switch (fork()) {
                case 0:
                        return intAdder2(30, 40);
                default:
                        break;
                }

                wait(&i);
                wait(&j);
                wait(&k);
                return intAdder3(WEXITSTATUS(i), WEXITSTATUS(j), WEXITSTATUS(k));
        default:
                wait(&answer);
                printf("%d\n", WEXITSTATUS(answer));
                break;
        }

        return 0;
}

@coreyoconnor
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coreyoconnor commented Aug 16, 2013

Here is nearly verbatim copy of the go source into haskell:

import Control.Monad
import Control.Concurrent
import Control.Concurrent.Chan

import Text.Printf

double :: Chan Int -> Int -> IO ()
double ch n = writeChan ch (n*2)

main = do
    ch <- newChan
    answer <- newChan

    forkIO $ double ch 10
    forkIO $ double ch 20
    forkIO $ (\a b -> writeChan ch (a + b)) 30 40
    forkIO $ do
        [x, y, z] <- replicateM 3 $ readChan ch
        writeChan answer $ (printf "%d + %d + %d = %d" x y z (x+y+z) :: String)

    printf "%s\n" =<< readChan answer

@robinp
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robinp commented Nov 16, 2013

Haskell, using monad-par:

module Main where

import Control.Monad
import Control.Monad.Par
import Text.Printf

-- | some common boilerplate
defer :: (NFData a) => Par a -> Par (Par a)
defer = liftM get . spawn
deferP :: (NFData a) => a -> Par (Par a)
deferP = liftM get . spawnP

calc :: Par String
calc = do
  pa <- deferP (2 * 10 :: Int)
  pb <- deferP (2 * 20)
  pc <- deferP (30 + 40)
  -- pc <- defer $ liftM2 (+) pa pb  -- this is a mildly more exiting use case
  liftM3 summary pa pb pc
  where
    summary a b c = printf "%d + %d + %d = %d" a b c (a+b+c)

main = do
  print (runPar calc)

@geraldstanje
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geraldstanje commented Aug 24, 2014

hi is the following a valid solution?

package main

import "fmt"
import "strconv"

/*
Programming Challenge: Launch 4 threads, goroutines, coroutines, or whatever your language uses for concurrency,
in addition to the main thread. In the first 3, add numbers together (see sample code below) and pass the results
to the 4th thread. That 4th thread should receive the 3 results, add the numbers together, format the results as a
string (see sample code), and pass the result back to main to be printed. Do this as succinctly and readably as
possible. Go! #golang #programming #concurrency #challenge
*/

func intToString(input_num int) string {
return strconv.FormatInt(int64(input_num), 10)
}

func intDoubler(a int, res chan int) {
res <- a * 2
}

func addInts(a int, b int, res chan int) {
res <- a + b
}

func formatFinal(res chan int, final chan string) {
var sum int

for i := 0; i<3; i++ {
    sum += <-res
}

final <- intToString(sum)

}

func main() {
intChan := make(chan int, 3)
strChan := make(chan string)

go intDoubler(10, intChan)
go intDoubler(20, intChan)
go addInts(30, 40, intChan)
go formatFinal(intChan, strChan)

res := <-strChan

fmt.Println(res)

}

@polonskiy
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polonskiy commented Dec 4, 2014

@timhuff
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timhuff commented Sep 28, 2015

Rust 1.3 solution (looks like the earlier Rust solutions are outdated)

use std::thread;

fn main() {
    let mut children = vec![];
    children.push(thread::spawn(move || {10*2}));
    children.push(thread::spawn(move || {20*2}));
    children.push(thread::spawn(move || {30+40}));

    let adder = thread::spawn(move || {
        let mut sum = 0;
        let result = children.into_iter().map(|child| {
            let value = child.join().unwrap();
            sum += value;
            format!("{}", value)
        }).collect::<Vec<_>>().join(" + ");
        return format!("{} = {}", result, sum);
    });

    let result = adder.join().unwrap();
    println!("{}", result);
}

@Zizaco
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Zizaco commented Jan 12, 2016

@polonskiy Actually, I'm not even mad! That's amazing 😨

@elimisteve
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elimisteve commented Mar 12, 2017

Would be interesting to see this done with http://libmill.org/ !

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