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Headless web browsers

Here are a list of headless browsers that I know about:

  • HtmlUnit - Java. Custom browser engine. JavaScript support/DOM emulated. Open source.
  • Ghost - Python only. WebKit-based. Full JavaScript support. Open source.
  • Twill - Python/command line. Custom browser engine. No JavaScript. Open source.
  • PhantomJS - Command line/all platforms. WebKit-based. Full JavaScript support. Open source.
  • Awesomium - C++/.Net/all platforms. Chromium-based. Full JavaScript support. Commercial/free.
  • SimpleBrowser - .Net 4/C#. Custom browser engine. No JavaScript support. Open source.
  • ZombieJS - Node.js. Custom browser engine. JavaScript support/emulated DOM. Open source.
  • EnvJS - JavaScript via Java/Rhino. Custom browser engine. JavaScript support/emulated DOM. Open source.
  • Watir-webdriver with headless gem - Ruby via WebDriver. Full JS Support via Browsers (Firefox/Chrome/Safari/IE).
  • Spynner - Python only. PyQT and WebKit.

Headless browsers that have JavaScript support via an emulated DOM generally have issues with some sites that use more advanced/obscure browser features, or have functionality that has visual dependencies (e.g. via CSS positions and so forth), so whilst the pure JavaScript support in these browsers is generally complete, the actual supported browser functionality should be considered as partial only.

(note: original version of this post only mentioned HtmlUnit, hence the comments. If you know of other headless browser implementations and have edit rights, feel free to edit this post and add them.)

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badsyntax commented Nov 13, 2013

Here's another one for the list: "A headless Internet Explorer browser with a Javascript API. PhantomJS for the Trident engine."

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VoidMonk commented Jan 15, 2014

Stumbled upon Crowbar (mozilla-based):

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sonnyp commented Mar 24, 2014 PhantomJS API-compatible, rely on Gecko (Firefox engine)

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FunnyDewd commented Apr 29, 2014 Like phantom.js except uses the firefox engine.

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mickaelandrieu commented May 4, 2014

BrowserKit, the Symfony2 component. PHP, no javascript support

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christophebe commented Jun 4, 2014

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nwohaibi commented Dec 29, 2014

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bass14 commented Feb 13, 2015

I tried htmlunit, jaunt, webview head less browser in java. but those browser are Rendering Css/js web page source code.

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chaserhkj commented Feb 16, 2015

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ldong commented Aug 6, 2015

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hollingsworthd commented Feb 24, 2016

Also check out which is Selenium-compatible and WebKit-based. Pure Java.

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zhuyingda commented Oct 17, 2016

Check out which is a chromium-based.Node.js/Javascript.

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JABirchall commented Feb 21, 2017

Laravel just released their browser emulator written in PHP Laravel/Dusk

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samlucax commented Aug 3, 2017

Can you add chrome headless: chrome headless

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Akagi201 commented Aug 23, 2017

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RichardBray commented Aug 23, 2017

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liesislukas commented Jan 24, 2019

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