How To Install Different JDK Versions on MacOS with Homebrew
Keywords: Java, JDK (Java Development Kit), MacOS, Homebrew, Specific Version
This how-to guide covers how to install different versions of the JDK on MacOS with Homebrew.
Table of Contents
- Introduction Homebrew
- Installing Java
This Guide Favors OpenJDK
This guide favors OpenJDK.
This guide favors free, simple, and permissive licensing whenever possible, so we will favor OpenJDK first, then AdoptOpenJDK if plain OpenJDK isn't available, any other open source distributions, and finally Oracle JDK if no other options are available. We favor OpenJDK because it has a permissive license, the GPL v2 with Classpath Exception (aka linking exception). For more information, see Oracle now requires a subscription to use Java SE (2018).
- For Java 8 and later, OpenJDK is readily available.
- For versions prior to Java 8 or other special circumstances, OpenJDK may not be available. We will cover how to install whatever is most readily available.
About Command Line Outputs
Note that this guide contains plenty of CLI command outputs. The intent of including these outputs is to illustrate what output should look like. Our goal IS NOT to keep up with exactly what the output is at the present day. This guide DOES NOT guarantee or even attempt to keep all those command outputs updated with the ever-evolving Hombrew formulae changes.
What's important are the commands, and the general form of the outputs. This guide WILL attempt to keep up-to-date with the best commands to run.
Just be aware that if something's been working for a while, the command output might look old, but the command itself will probably still run fine for more recent updates.
Remember to frequently
brew update. Homebrew may also auto-update upon running key homebrew commands such as
$ brew update Updating Homebrew... ==> Auto-updated Homebrew! Updated 1 tap (homebrew/cask). ==> Updated Casks foo
Double check your registered taps by running
brew tap. It's generally good practice to have
homebrew/cask-versions taprooms tapped, especially when installing multiple Java versions.
Check your taps.
$ brew tap homebrew/cask homebrew/cask-versions homebrew/core homebrew/services
homebrew/cask-versions aren't in the list of your registered taps, then run
brew tap homebrew/cask and
brew tap homebrew/cask-versions to tap them.
Tap into the
$ brew tap homebrew/cask ==> Tapping homebrew/cask Cloning into '/usr/local/Homebrew/Library/Taps/homebrew/homebrew-cask'... remote: Enumerating objects: 72, done. remote: Counting objects: 100% (72/72), done. remote: Compressing objects: 100% (58/58), done. remote: Total 491774 (delta 34), reused 29 (delta 14), pack-reused 491702 Receiving objects: 100% (491774/491774), 226.08 MiB | 25.32 MiB/s, done. Resolving deltas: 100% (348965/348965), done. Tapped 1 command and 3713 casks (3,831 files, 242MB).
Tap into the
$ brew tap homebrew/cask-versions ==> Tapping homebrew/cask-versions Cloning into '/usr/local/Homebrew/Library/Taps/homebrew/homebrew-cask-versions'... remote: Enumerating objects: 34, done. remote: Counting objects: 100% (34/34), done. remote: Compressing objects: 100% (28/28), done. remote: Total 230190 (delta 17), reused 6 (delta 6), pack-reused 230156 Receiving objects: 100% (230190/230190), 59.24 MiB | 7.37 MiB/s, done. Resolving deltas: 100% (158472/158472), done. Tapped 166 casks (213 files, 65.6MB).
Getting an Overview: How to Search Homebrew for Java formulae
A lot of the information in this how-to guide is simply gathered from
brew search and
brew info. If you're still getting the hang of things, I highly recommend you run these commands yourself to get an overview of what's available and learn how to search Homebrew's formulae.
Java/JDK formula/cask names typically contain either
brew search for
jdk to see potential formulas.
We can see some of the formulae/casks we're looking for, such as
$ brew search jdk ==> Formulae openjdk ✔ openjdk@11 ✔ openjdk@8 ✔ ==> Casks adoptopenjdk jdk-mission-control oracle-jdk-javadoc adoptopenjdk8 oracle-jdk sapmachine-jdk
We can see some more potential formulae/casks we're looking for, such as
Get the summary and metadata for a formula/cask you are interested in by running
brew info <formula> or
brew cask info <cask>.
As an example, let's start simple and get the info of
java is an alias for the
openjdk formula. At the time of writing, the current version is OpenJDK 15.
$ brew info java Warning: Treating java as a formula. openjdk: stable 15.0.1 (bottled) [keg-only] Development kit for the Java programming language https://openjdk.java.net/ /usr/local/Cellar/openjdk/15.0.1 (614 files, 323.8MB) Poured from bottle on 2020-11-05 at 14:06:55 From: https://github.com/Homebrew/homebrew-core/blob/HEAD/Formula/openjdk.rb License: Cannot Represent ==> Dependencies Build: autoconf ✔ ==> Caveats For the system Java wrappers to find this JDK, symlink it with sudo ln -sfn /usr/local/opt/openjdk/libexec/openjdk.jdk /Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/openjdk.jdk openjdk is keg-only, which means it was not symlinked into /usr/local, because it shadows the macOS `java` wrapper. If you need to have openjdk first in your PATH run: echo 'export PATH="/usr/local/opt/openjdk/bin:$PATH"' >> ~/.zshrc For compilers to find openjdk you may need to set: export CPPFLAGS="-I/usr/local/opt/openjdk/include" ==> Analytics install: 181,357 (30 days), 434,315 (90 days), 1,183,511 (365 days) install-on-request: 71,666 (30 days), 175,260 (90 days), 260,903 (365 days) build-error: 0 (30 days)
Early Access (EA) OpenJDK Feature Release
java-beta cask contains the OpenJDK Early Access JDK.
homebrew/cask-versionsmust be tapped.
Double check information about the cask, such as JDK build version and OpenJDK.
$ brew cask info java-beta java-beta: 16,25 https://jdk.java.net/ /usr/local/Caskroom/java-beta/16,25 (144B) From: https://github.com/Homebrew/homebrew-cask-versions/blob/HEAD/Casks/java-beta.rb ==> Name OpenJDK Early Access Java Development Kit ==> Description Early access development kit for the Java programming language ==> Artifacts jdk-16.jdk -> /Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/openjdk-16.jdk (Generic Artifact)
Install the early access feature release of the OpenJDK.
$ brew cask install java-beta ==> Downloading https://download.java.net/java/early_access/jdk16/25/GPL/openjdk Already downloaded: /Users/georgep/Library/Caches/Homebrew/downloads/ce9292709109d07c9bd145508e429bcb4a446bf13f2e6828e66a253b3ad8cb71--openjdk-16-ea 25_osx-x64_bin.tar.gz ==> Verifying SHA-256 checksum for Cask 'java-beta'. ==> Installing Cask java-beta ==> Moving Generic Artifact 'jdk-16.jdk' to '/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/openjdk-16.jdk' 🍺 java-beta was successfully installed!
Latest Stable Generally Available (GA) OpenJDK Feature Release (Java 15, 16, etc...)
openjdkis a formula avilable on
homebrew/core. You don't have to tap any additional taprooms/caskrooms.
- There is a
javaalias which points to
openjdk, if you prefer the alias.
Double check information about the formula, such as JDK version and OpenJDK being the source.
$ brew info openjdk openjdk: stable 15.0.1 (bottled) [keg-only] Development kit for the Java programming language https://openjdk.java.net/ /usr/local/Cellar/openjdk/15.0.1 (614 files, 323.8MB) Poured from bottle on 2020-11-05 at 14:06:55 From: https://github.com/Homebrew/homebrew-core/blob/HEAD/Formula/openjdk.rb License: Cannot Represent ==> Dependencies Build: autoconf ✔ ==> Caveats For the system Java wrappers to find this JDK, symlink it with sudo ln -sfn /usr/local/opt/openjdk/libexec/openjdk.jdk /Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/openjdk.jdk openjdk is keg-only, which means it was not symlinked into /usr/local, because it shadows the macOS `java` wrapper. If you need to have openjdk first in your PATH run: echo 'export PATH="/usr/local/opt/openjdk/bin:$PATH"' >> ~/.zshrc For compilers to find openjdk you may need to set: export CPPFLAGS="-I/usr/local/opt/openjdk/include" ==> Analytics install: 181,357 (30 days), 434,315 (90 days), 1,183,511 (365 days) install-on-request: 71,666 (30 days), 175,260 (90 days), 260,903 (365 days) build-error: 0 (30 days)
Install the most recent stable feature release of OpenJDK
$ brew install openjdk
NOTE: Pay attention to the caveat about manually symlinking the jdk into
/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines. It's a manual "opt-in" to treating the Java installation as recognizable by the system at large. It's recommended you run the provided symlink command.
JDK 11 is an LTS (Long Term Support) version.
- There is no such thing as a
java-ltsformula or cask, because there is no single LTS version. You must explicitly choose to install Java 11.
- Note that this formula is available on
homebrew/core, so you don't need to have tapped any caskrooms.
- There is a
java11alias which points to
$ brew info openjdk@11 # Confirm information about the formula. Note that it's poured from the OpenJDK formula. $ brew install openjdk@11 # Install OpenJDK 11
Older OpenJDK Feature Release (Java 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, etc.)
Homebrew does not offer an obvious way to install an older feature release of Java other than the current generally-available feature release. For example, there is no such formula as
homebrew/core, nor is there such a cask in
There is good reason for this; out-of-date feature releases are explicitly not supported by OpenJDK. Only the current feature release is supported (thus we get formulae with continual version updates like
openjdk). Quoting jdk.java.net - JDK 14 Releases:
JDK 14 has been superseded. Please visit jdk.java.net for the current version.
Older releases, which do not include the most up to date security vulnerability fixes and are no longer recommended for use in production, remain available in the OpenJDK Archive.
If you still need to install an Older JDK Feature Release, here are some recommendations.
Manually download and install your desired version from the OpenJDK Archive.
➜ ~ sdk list java ================================================================================ Available Java Versions ================================================================================ Vendor | Use | Version | Dist | Status | Identifier -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- AdoptOpenJDK | | 15.0.1.j9 | adpt | | 15.0.1.j9-adpt | | 15.0.1.hs | adpt | | 15.0.1.hs-adpt | | 14.0.2.j9 | adpt | | 14.0.2.j9-adpt | | 14.0.2.hs | adpt | | 14.0.2.hs-adpt | | 13.0.2.j9 | adpt | | 13.0.2.j9-adpt | | 13.0.2.hs | adpt | | 13.0.2.hs-adpt | | 12.0.2.j9 | adpt | | 12.0.2.j9-adpt | | 12.0.2.hs | adpt | | 12.0.2.hs-adpt | | 11.0.9.j9 | adpt | | 11.0.9.j9-adpt | | 11.0.9.hs | adpt | | 11.0.9.hs-adpt | | 8.0.275.j9 | adpt | | 8.0.275.j9-adpt | | 8.0.275.hs | adpt | | 8.0.275.hs-adpt | | 8.0.272.hs | adpt | | 8.0.272.hs-adpt ... Java.net | | 16.ea.24 | open | | 16.ea.24-open | | 16.ea.7.lm | open | | 16.ea.7.lm-open | | 16.ea.2.pma | open | | 16.ea.2.pma-open | | 15.0.1 | open | | 15.0.1-open | | 14.0.2 | open | | 14.0.2-open | | 14.0.1 | open | local only | 14.0.1-open | | 13.0.2 | open | | 13.0.2-open | | 12.0.2 | open | | 12.0.2-open | >>> | 11.0.2 | open | installed | 11.0.2-open | | 10.0.2 | open | | 10.0.2-open | | 9.0.4 | open | | 9.0.4-open ...
Brew has an
$ brew info openjdk@8 $ brew install openjdk@8
Another option is installing AdoptOpenJDK 8 via cask.
$ brew tap homebrew/cask-versions # cask-versions must be tapped to get access to this caskto different cask versions. $ brew search jdk # Find `adoptopenjdk8` in the casks $ brew cask info adoptopenjdk8 # Confirm information about the cask. Note that this is an AdoptOpenJDK build of OpenJDK. $ brew cask install adoptopenjdk8 # Install the AdoptOpenJDK build of OpenJDK8
See the AdoptOpenJDK HomeBrew Tap Github Repo for an alternative taproom with more AdoptOpenJDK versions.
💀OBSOLETE 💀: It appears Java 7 is no longer available in
homebrew/cask-versions. It used to be available at
# THIS IS OBSOLETE. INCLUDED FOR REFERENCE PURPOSES. $ brew cask info caskroom/versions/java7 # Query info about Java cask installation beforehand $ brew cask install caskroom/versions/java7 # For Java 7
If you know how to find Java 7 on Homebrew, please leave a comment on how to do so and we can add it in here.
- Note from the metadata in
brew info java6that this is JDK is for Apple OSX.
$ brew info java6 java6: 1.6.0_65-b14-468 https://support.apple.com/kb/DL1572 Not installed From: https://github.com/Homebrew/homebrew-cask-versions/blob/HEAD/Casks/java6.rb ==> Name Apple Java 6 Standard Edition Development Kit ==> Description Legacy runtime for the Java programming language ==> Artifacts JavaForOSX/JavaForOSX.pkg/Payload/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/1.6.0.jdk -> /Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/1.6.0.jdk (Generic Artifact)
$ brew tap homebrew/cask-versions # Make sure you have cask-versions tapped $ brew cask info java6 # Double check information about the cask. $ brew cask install java6 # Install Java6 for OSX
- The MacOS Java install location is
- Certain formulae, such as
openjdk, do not automatically install into the actual
/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/. Instead, the formula will suggest to you in the installation/info caveats to symlink it into that location.
- Certain formulae, such as
- When upgrading Java installations with Homebrew
- Be aware upgrades will overwrite the
cacertstruststore file (if you have edited that).
- Be aware that the JDK install directory's name may fall out of date when you perform the upgrade. You may have to manually rename the directory, and make tweaks to your configurations accordingly.
- Be aware upgrades will overwrite the
- I recommend jEnv for switching between multiple Java environments on MacOS.
- I think it's generally wise to have
homebrew/cask-versionstapped. They are practically core.
- SDKMAN is a SDK downloader and manager that can be a viable alternative to Homebrew for installing JDKs and even managing them.