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@htruong
Last active February 8, 2024 18:42
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Chroot to pi sd card
#!/bin/bash
# This script allows you to chroot ("work on")
# the raspbian sd card as if it's the raspberry pi
# on your Ubuntu desktop/laptop
# just much faster and more convenient
# credits: https://gist.github.com/jkullick/9b02c2061fbdf4a6c4e8a78f1312a689
# make sure you have issued
# (sudo) apt install qemu qemu-user-static binfmt-support
# Write the raspbian image onto the sd card,
# boot the pi with the card once
# so it expands the fs automatically
# then plug back to your laptop/desktop
# and chroot to it with this script.
# Invoke:
# (sudo) ./chroot-to-pi.sh /dev/sdb
# assuming /dev/sdb is your sd-card
# if you don't know, when you plug the card in, type:
# dmesg | tail -n30
# Note: If you have an image file instead of the sd card,
# you will need to issue
# (sudo) apt install kpartx
# (sudo) kpartx -v -a 2017-11-29-raspbian-stretch-lite.img
# then
# (sudo) ./chroot-to-pi.sh /dev/mapper/loop0p
# With the vanilla image, you have very little space to work on
# I have not figured out a reliable way to resize it
# Something like this should work, but it didn't in my experience
# https://gist.github.com/htruong/0271d84ae81ee1d301293d126a5ad716
# so it's better just to let the pi resize the partitions
mkdir -p /mnt/raspbian
# mount partition
mount -o rw ${1}2 /mnt/raspbian
mount -o rw ${1}1 /mnt/raspbian/boot
# mount binds
mount --bind /dev /mnt/raspbian/dev/
mount --bind /sys /mnt/raspbian/sys/
mount --bind /proc /mnt/raspbian/proc/
mount --bind /dev/pts /mnt/raspbian/dev/pts
# ld.so.preload fix
sed -i 's/^/#CHROOT /g' /mnt/raspbian/etc/ld.so.preload
# copy qemu binary
cp /usr/bin/qemu-arm-static /mnt/raspbian/usr/bin/
echo "You will be transferred to the bash shell now."
echo "Issue 'exit' when you are done."
echo "Issue 'su pi' if you need to work as the user pi."
# chroot to raspbian
chroot /mnt/raspbian /bin/bash
# ----------------------------
# Clean up
# revert ld.so.preload fix
sed -i 's/^#CHROOT //g' /mnt/raspbian/etc/ld.so.preload
# unmount everything
umount /mnt/raspbian/{dev/pts,dev,sys,proc,boot,}
@cinderblock
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@dimitry-ishenko So, I finally actually got around to trying this. It does not seem to work for me unless I copy the qemu binary to the chroot. I'm working over here: https://gist.github.com/cinderblock/20952a653989e55f8a7770a0ca2348a8

@ikidd
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ikidd commented Aug 12, 2020

I had to export PATH=/sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/bin in the chroot, might want to add that to the comments in script for newish users so they can use common bash commands from the start.

@TheSeriousProgrammer
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Hi, so whenever I chroot into raspberry pi IMG , the processor arch is always armv7 .. Anyway I could select armv6??

@combs
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combs commented Dec 2, 2020

wow, this will save me some time, thank you!

Might be worth adding a 'set -e' or individual error handling to lines like chroot, mount, etc in case of typos or other errors... It could make changes to the host machine without?

edit: I guess it would just leave stray files in /mnt/raspbian. shrug!

@cinderblock
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cinderblock commented Dec 4, 2020

@combs Check out my version of this script that adds a trap to automatically cleanup no matter where the error happened.

@AgentCasey
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I've been chrooting into my raspberry pi's sdcard for a while now however, my method isn't so complicated. First after I boot the sdcard once, I make a directory called chroot-debian, then I use a sdcard-usb adapter so the sdcard appears as a usb device with two partitions, namely /dev/sdb1 which has the /boot/ and then /dev/sdb2 which is the /root partition. I issue these commands:
sudo mount -o bind /dev chroot-debian/dev
sudo mount -o bind /proc chroot-debian/proc
sudo chroot chroot-debian /bin/bash. Wonderful things happen after that I can issue apt update -y && apt upgrade -y and have it done. I have Debian Sid on that sdcard so if I need to build a package using debuild -uc -us to upgrade some of my aging apps in buster I can do it all on the same machine, all in my home directory. As I said my way is less complicated but I will study this method and see what wisdom I can gleam.

@Robokishan
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Is there any way we can get kernel version of img file i just have to copy .ko compiled files for linux kernel into system. but rather than hard coding kernel version like /lib/modules/5.10.11-v7l+/ i would like to get kernel version dynamically so in future it would be easy. but the problem is uname -r provides kernel version of host os any help please

@Robokishan
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Robokishan commented Feb 17, 2021

https://gist.github.com/Robokishan/8ffb8acec88fbbaf6c6c857d9c4ffe6a made a simple script for operation
How to do

  1. Download chroot-to-pi.sh
  2. in the same directory download above script
  3. Download img file of raspberrypi
  4. bash setup-chroot.sh
  5. Once work finished type exit and all the loop device will be deleted and mounted dir will be unmounted

Expand img file

https://gist.github.com/Robokishan/4dc13947b980bdcdfc20543b75c1f0fb using this script

@gnthibault
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It might seem obvious to some, but this method work wonderfull for very simple task, but due to the very nature of systemd and the way that chroot is working, you cannot get anything related to systemd done, you will get something like this:

Running in chroot, ignoring request: start
Running in chroot, ignoring request: restart
Running in chroot, ignoring request: reload
Running in chroot, ignoring request: daemon-reload
Running in chroot, ignoring request: is-active

@cinderblock
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@gnthibault Those methods indead do not work because they do not make sense to run when the Pi is offline.

However systemctl enable ... and related configuration commands work just fine.

PS, I've combined some of the ideas here with some others into a full repo. I'd love for others to check it out!

https://github.com/cinderblock/RaspberryPi-Image-Generator

@dmuiX
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dmuiX commented Dec 4, 2022

I would add something like to establish internet connection:

# establish internet connection
mv /mnt/raspbian/etc/resolv.conf /mnt/raspbian/etc/resolv.conf_bak
cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/raspbian/etc/

And in the cleanup section:

# revert /etc/resolv.conf_bak
rm /mnt/raspbian/etc/resolv.conf 
mv /mnt/raspbian/etc/resolv.conf_bak /mnt/raspbian/etc/resolv.conf

Just saw that somebody above already suggested adding resolv.conf as a mount bind. I will test if this is the better way.

@SX-9
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SX-9 commented Apr 16, 2023

sudo ./pi-chroot /dev/sdc

You will be transferred to the bash shell now.
Issue 'exit' when you are done.
Issue 'su pi' if you need to work as the user pi.
chroot: failed to run command ‘/bin/bash’: Exec format error

i have a feeling i got this error since im running it on arch linux and binfmt-support is not avaible in arch

@cinderblock
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@SX-9 Are you sure you got qemu working? There are some checks you can use here to see some more about what isn't setup properly.

@kelvie
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kelvie commented Jul 17, 2023

If anyone on arch is trying this, you can basically just install qemu-user-static-binfmt and just run sudo arch-chroot . on the rootfs (optionally mounting boot first).

@viniciusbo
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For those using Gentoo, make sure you've built qemu package with static-user and QEMU_SOFTMMU_TARGETS: arm QEMU_USER_TARGETS: arm. Further info in the official handbook: https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Embedded_Handbook/General/Compiling_with_QEMU_user_chroot

@BoManev
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BoManev commented Feb 8, 2024

Alternative to dmesg | tail -n30

  • lsblk -o NAME,MOUNTPOINT
  • check the mount in /media/<user_name>/

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