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An implementation of the "Growing Tree" algorithm for maze generation.
# --------------------------------------------------------------------
# An implementation of the "Growing Tree" algorithm. This one is
# notable for it's ability to become nearly identical to Prim's
# algorithm, or the Recursive Backtracking algorithm, depending on
# how the cells are removed from the list that aggregates as the
# algorithm runs.
#
# This script allows you to play with those settings by specifying
# the mode after the width and height parameters, as "random" (pull
# the cell from list at random), "newest" (pull the newest cell),
# "middle" (pull the cell from the middle of the list), "oldest"
# (pull the oldest cell), or a combination of any of these, e.g.:
#
# ruby growing-tree.rb 10 10 newest:50,random:50
#
# That would select the newest cell half of the time, and a random
# cell the other half of the time. You can specify a sequence of
# commands as well, to be chosen in order, by separating them with
# semicolons; each subcommand may then be a comma-delimited list of
# options to select randomly:
#
# ruby growing-tree.rb 10 10 "newest;newest;oldest,middle"
#
# Always choosing the newest cell will mimic recursive backtracking,
# and always choosing a random cell will mimic Prim's. Experiment and
# see what you get!
# --------------------------------------------------------------------
# --------------------------------------------------------------------
# 1. Allow the maze to be customized via command-line parameters
# --------------------------------------------------------------------
width = (ARGV[0] || 10).to_i
height = (ARGV[1] || width).to_i
mode = (ARGV[2] || "random")
seed = (ARGV[3] || rand(0xFFFF_FFFF)).to_i
srand(seed)
grid = Array.new(height) { Array.new(width, 0) }
# --------------------------------------------------------------------
# 2. Set up constants to aid with describing the passage directions
# --------------------------------------------------------------------
N, S, E, W = 1, 2, 4, 8
DX = { E => 1, W => -1, N => 0, S => 0 }
DY = { E => 0, W => 0, N => -1, S => 1 }
OPPOSITE = { E => W, W => E, N => S, S => N }
# --------------------------------------------------------------------
# 3. Data structures to assist the algorithm
# --------------------------------------------------------------------
class Script
def initialize(arg)
@commands = arg.split(/;/).map { |cmd| parse_command(cmd) }
@current = 0
end
def parse_command(cmd)
total_weight = 0
parts = cmd.split(/,/).map do |element|
name, weight = element.split(/:/)
weight ||= 100
abort "commands must be random, newest, middle, or oldest (was #{name.inspect})" unless %w(random r newest n middle m oldest o).include?(name)
total_weight += weight.to_i
{ :name => name.to_sym, :weight => total_weight }
end
{ :total => total_weight, :parts => parts }
end
def next_index(ceil)
command = @commands[@current]
@current = (@current + 1) % @commands.length
v = rand(command[:total])
command[:parts].each do |part|
if v < part[:weight]
case part[:name]
when :random, :r then return rand(ceil)
when :newest, :n then return ceil-1
when :middle, :m then return ceil/2
when :oldest, :o then return 0
end
end
end
abort "[bug] failed to find index (#{v} of #{command.inspect})"
end
def to_s
@commands.map do |command|
v = 0
command[:parts].map { |part| s = "#{part[:name]}:#{part[:weight]-v}"; v = part[:weight]; s }.join(",")
end.join(";")
end
end
cells = []
script = Script.new(mode)
# --------------------------------------------------------------------
# 4. A simple routine to emit the maze as ASCII
# --------------------------------------------------------------------
def display_maze(grid)
print "\e[H" # move to upper-left
puts " " + "_" * (grid[0].length * 2 - 1)
grid.each_with_index do |row, y|
print "|"
row.each_with_index do |cell, x|
if cell == 0 && y+1 < grid.length && grid[y+1][x] == 0
print " "
else
print((cell & S != 0) ? " " : "_")
end
if cell == 0 && x+1 < row.length && row[x+1] == 0
print((y+1 < grid.length && (grid[y+1][x] == 0 || grid[y+1][x+1] == 0)) ? " " : "_")
elsif cell & E != 0
print(((cell | row[x+1]) & S != 0) ? " " : "_")
else
print "|"
end
end
puts
end
end
# --------------------------------------------------------------------
# 5. Growing Tree algorithm
# --------------------------------------------------------------------
print "\e[2J" # clear the screen
display_maze(grid)
sleep 0.02
x, y = rand(width), rand(height)
cells << [x, y]
until cells.empty?
index = script.next_index(cells.length)
x, y = cells[index]
[N, S, E, W].shuffle.each do |dir|
nx, ny = x + DX[dir], y + DY[dir]
if nx >= 0 && ny >= 0 && nx < width && ny < height && grid[ny][nx] == 0
grid[y][x] |= dir
grid[ny][nx] |= OPPOSITE[dir]
cells << [nx, ny]
index = nil
display_maze(grid)
sleep 0.02
break
end
end
cells.delete_at(index) if index
end
display_maze(grid)
# --------------------------------------------------------------------
# 5. Show the parameters used to build this maze, for repeatability
# --------------------------------------------------------------------
puts "#{$0} #{width} #{height} #{script} #{seed}"
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