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process.nextTick vs setTimeout(fn, 0)

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nextTick.js
JavaScript
1 2 3
for (var i = 0; i < 1024 * 1024; i++) {
process.nextTick(function () { Math.sqrt(i) } )
}
results.md
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Results

Intel i7 890 @ 2.93 GHz x64, node compiled with -march=native -mtune=native:

$ time node nextTick.js 

real    0m0.344s
user    0m0.276s
sys     0m0.067s

$ time node setTimeout.js 

real    0m9.125s
user    0m8.707s
sys     0m0.410s

Feel free to fork and add your results!

setTimeout.js
JavaScript
1 2 3
for (var i = 0; i < 1024 * 1024; i++) {
setTimeout(function () { Math.sqrt(i) }, 0)
}

Curious. Although the point stands, mine difference is ~4 times smaller:

real 0m0.650s
user 0m0.492s
sys 0m0.072s

real 0m5.374s
user 0m5.028s
sys 0m0.412s

That's interesting. I bet intervals just got faster - I ran my tests at a pretty old version of node. Too bad I didn't specify it (I don't actually remember it right now).

$ time node nextTick.js

real 0m0.534s
user 0m0.467s
sys 0m0.069s

$ time node setTimeout.js

real 0m10.724s
user 0m10.163s
sys 0m0.678s

on my 13" Air

Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Duo CPU E7400 @ 2.80GHz
node v0.6.17

$ time node nextTick.js

real 0m0.622s
user 0m0.532s
sys 0m0.084s

$ time node timeOut.js

real 0m11.111s
user 0m10.273s
sys 0m0.636s

node nextTick.js 3.11s user 0.24s system 93% cpu 3.587 total
node setTimeout.js 31.21s user 1.59s system 89% cpu 36.616 total

This kills the Atom processor.

$ uname -a
Darwin MacBook-Air-13.local 11.4.0 Darwin Kernel Version 11.4.0: Mon Apr  9 19:32:15 PDT 2012; root:xnu-1699.26.8~1/RELEASE_X86_64 x86_64

$ node -v
v0.8.0

$ time node nextTick.js 
real   0m0.833s
user   0m0.714s
sys    0m0.117s

$ time node setTimeout.js 
real   0m2.600s
user   0m2.312s
sys    0m0.211s
intel core i5 @2.4 GHZ

$ node -v
v0.8.2
for (var i = 0; i < 1024 * 1024; i++) {
    process.nextTick(function () { Math.sqrt(i) } )
}

$ time node nextTick.js 
real    0m0.654s
user    0m0.576s
sys 0m0.076s
for (var i = 0; i < 1024 * 1024; i++) {
    setTimeout(function () { Math.sqrt(i) }, 0)
}

$ time node setTimeout.js 
real    0m1.740s
user    0m1.608s
sys 0m0.140s
var batch = 128;
for (var i = 0; i < 1024 * 1024; i+= batch) {
    (function(i) {
        setTimeout(function () {
            for (var j = i; j<i+batch; j += 1) {
                Math.sqrt(j)
            }
        }, 0)
    })(i);
}

$ time node setTimeoutBatch.js 
real    0m0.094s
user    0m0.084s
sys 0m0.008s
for (var i = 0; i < 1024 * 1024; i += 1) {
    Math.sqrt(i)
}

$ time node forLoop.js 
real    0m0.049s
user    0m0.044s
sys 0m0.000s

Seems that setTimeout(fn, 0) is not so bad if used more efficient.

Ugh, microbenchmarks. JIT compilers will behave differently as code paths are warmed, and will inline some loops more efficiently than others. This doesn't portend anything meaningful in a real-world application, I fear.

What's the point of doing

 for (var i=0; i<1<<20; i++)
      async(function() { Math.sqrt(1<<20); });

Seems someone has forgotten a closure, to extract a root from very many integers you would do

 for (var i=0; i<1<<20; i++)
       async( Math.sqrt.bind(Math, i) );

$ uname -a
Linux ### 3.5.0-26-generic #42-Ubuntu SMP Fri Mar 8 23:18:20 UTC 2013 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

$ node -v
v0.8.22
$ time node nextTick.js

real 0m0.787s
user 0m0.704s
sys 0m0.088s
$ time node setTimeout.js

real 0m2.874s
user 0m2.708s
sys 0m0.208s

$ uname -a
Darwin Lourenzo-Mac-Mini.local 12.4.0 Darwin Kernel Version 12.4.0: Wed May 1 17:57:12 PDT 2013; root:xnu-2050.24.15~1/RELEASE_X86_64 x86_64 i386 Macmini6,1 Darwin

$ node -v
v0.10.15

$ time node nextTick.js

real 0m0.650s
user 0m0.505s
sys 0m0.074s

$ time node setTimeout.js

real 0m1.067s
user 0m0.985s
sys 0m0.086s

"setTimeout" usually has built-in minimal delay value (which is a few ms). Even if you call "setTimeout" with 0 ms delay it will still run with at least with few ms delay. This is an another reason why it is so slow in these "benchmarks".

See: https://developer.mozilla.org/en/docs/Web/API/window.setTimeout#Notes

400 MHz ARM926EJ-STM ARM® Thumb® Processor
32 Kbytes Data Cache, 32 Kbytes Instruction Cache, MMU

[root@alarm ~]# uname -a
Linux alarm 3.1.0-g6853fe7 #6 PREEMPT Tue Mar 4 21:53:22 CST 2014 armv5tejl GNU/Linux
[root@alarm ~]# node -v
v0.10.26
[root@alarm ~]# time node nextTick.js 

real    0m47.661s
user    0m46.309s
sys 0m1.352s
[root@alarm ~]# time node setTimeout.js 

real    2m10.043s
user    2m4.707s
sys 0m5.332s

Is expected this result on arm platform?

RAM 3.7 GiB
Processor Intel® Core™ i5-2467M CPU @ 1.60GHz × 4
Arch 64-bit
OS Linux, Ubuntu 13.10

$ time node nextTick.js
 real   0m0.749s
 user   0m0.630s
 sys    0m0.089s

$ time node setTimeout.js
 real   0m1.294s
 user   0m1.223s
 sys    0m0.080s

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