http://thedata.org/citation proposes an "universal numerical fingerprint" (UNF) as hash value of the dataset. The UNF standard includes rules to normalize data before calculating the cryptographic hash.
Data Citation Index (Thomson Reuters)
- Altman, Micah, and Gary King. 2007. "A Proposed Standard for the Scholarly Citation of Quantitative Data," D-Lib Magazine 13. www.dlib.org/dlib/march07/altman/03altman.html
- The Anatomy of a Data Citation: Discovery, Reuse, and Credit. http://jlsc-pub.org/jlsc/vol1/iss1/6/