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Created August 7, 2016 21:58
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Comonadic UIs
module Main where
import React
import React.DOM as D
import React.DOM.Props as P
import Control.Comonad (class Comonad, extract, duplicate)
import Control.Comonad.Cofree (Cofree, mkCofree, head, tail)
import Control.Comonad.Store (StoreT, store)
import Control.Comonad.Traced (TracedT, traced)
import Control.Monad (pure, bind, (>>=))
import Control.Monad.Eff (Eff)
import Control.Monad.State (modify)
import Control.Monad.Writer (tell)
import DOM (DOM)
import DOM.HTML (window)
import DOM.HTML.Types (htmlDocumentToDocument)
import DOM.HTML.Window (document)
import DOM.Node.NonElementParentNode (getElementById)
import DOM.Node.Types (Element, ElementId(..), documentToNonElementParentNode)
import Data.Function (id, const, (<<<), ($))
import Data.Functor (class Functor, map, void)
import Data.Functor.Pairing (type (⋈), sym)
import Data.Functor.Pairing.Co (Co, runCo, co, pairCo)
import Data.Identity (Identity)
import Data.Lazy (Lazy, defer, force)
import Data.Maybe (fromJust)
import Data.Monoid.Additive (Additive(..))
import Data.Nullable (toMaybe)
import Data.Tuple (Tuple(..))
import Data.Unit (Unit, unit)
import Partial.Unsafe (unsafePartial)
import Prelude (add, show)
type Handler a = forall eff. a -> Eff (state :: ReactState ReadWrite | eff) Unit
type UI a = Handler a -> ReactElement
-- | We can think of user interfaces as exploring a (pointed) space of states.
-- | We can model that space using a comonad, and different choices of comonad
-- | correspond to different UI patterns:
-- |
-- | - Store corresponds to something like React, where we just have a state,
-- | and a function taking each state to a user interface.
-- | - The Traced comonad corresponds to something like an incremental game,
-- | where we have a state for every value in some monoid.
-- | - Mealy machines are more like the Elm architecture, where we respond to
-- | input events, and update some internal state.
-- | - A cofree comonad is a bit like Halogen. We have some functor which
-- | describes the transitions to new states, but which can also respond
-- | to queries on the current state.
-- |
-- | Other comonads might be worth looking at.
-- |
-- | If we can pair the comonad with some monad `m`, then we can use `m` to
-- | explore the state space. `m` actions will be connected to the user
-- | interface. For example:
-- |
-- | - `Store` pairs with `State`, so we can use get and put to read and write the
-- | stored state.
-- | - `Traced` pairs with `Writer`, so we can use `tell` to append some monoidal
-- | value to our state.
-- | - `Mealy action` is `Cofree (Function action)`, so pairs with
-- | `Free (Tuple action)`. We can emit zero or more actions in response to
-- | each user event.
-- | - `Cofree f` in general pairs with `Free g`, where `f` pairs with `g`. This
-- | corresponds to what we use in Halogen.
explore :: forall w m props. Comonad w => m ⋈ w -> w (UI (m Unit)) -> ReactClass props
explore pair space = createClass (spec space render) where
render :: ReactThis props (w (UI (m Unit))) -> Eff _ ReactElement
render this = do
state <- readState this
let send :: forall eff. m Unit -> Eff (state :: ReactState ReadWrite | eff) Unit
send m = transformState this (pair (const id) m <<< duplicate)
pure (extract state send)
type Component w = w (UI (Co w Unit))
-- | We don't need to bother with the explicit pairing, we can use the one which
-- | comes for free from the `Co` monad.
-- |
-- | Type class instances are provided for the MTL classes, so we can use `Co` as
-- | our action monad using the functions defined by those classes.
exploreCo :: forall w props. Comonad w => Component w -> ReactClass props
exploreCo = explore (sym pairCo)
-- | A counter component implemented using the `Store` comonad.
storeExample :: Component (StoreT Int Identity)
storeExample = store render 0 where
render :: Int -> UI (Co (StoreT Int Identity) Unit)
render count send =
D.button [ P.onClick \_ ->
send (modify (add 1))
[ D.text (show count)
, D.text " Increment"
-- | A counter component implemented using the `Traced` comonad.
tracedExample :: Component (TracedT (Additive Int) Identity)
tracedExample = traced render where
render :: Additive Int -> UI (Co (TracedT (Additive Int) Identity) Unit)
render (Additive count) send =
D.button [ P.onClick \_ ->
send (tell (Additive 1))
[ D.text (show count)
, D.text " Increment"
-- | A counter component implemented using a `Cofree` comonad.
cofreeExample :: Component (Cofree Lazy)
cofreeExample = iterCofree 0 step where
iterCofree :: forall a s f. Functor f => s -> (s -> Tuple a (f s)) -> Cofree f a
iterCofree s f =
case f s of
Tuple a fs -> mkCofree a (map (_ `iterCofree` f) fs)
step :: Int -> Tuple (UI (Co (Cofree Lazy) Unit)) (Lazy Int)
step count = Tuple ui (defer \_ -> add count 1) where
ui :: UI (Co (Cofree Lazy) Unit)
ui send =
D.button [ P.onClick \_ ->
-- This could definitely be nicer.
-- Ideally, Co w would have a MonadFree instance.
-- Another option is to work directly with the pairing
-- between Cofree and Free.
send (co \x -> head (force (tail x)) unit)
[ D.text (show count)
, D.text " Increment"
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