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@pixeltrix
Last active May 9, 2020
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Ruby implementation of the NHS contact tracing app's messages and how they're decrypted
require "openssl"
require "securerandom"
##########################
### iOS/Android Device ###
##########################
# Installation id - returned by the registration request
uuid = "E1D160C7-F6E8-48BC-8687-63C696D910CB"
uuid_bytes = uuid.scan(/[0-9A-Z]{2}/).map { |s| s.to_i(16) }.pack("C*")
# Secret key used to sign broadcasts - returned by the registration request
secret_key = "3WEejyPI2UdjPKXb4PnedwqZudEqKURiuFKHzdOKZsE="
# Sytem-wide public key used to encrypt the data - returned by the registration request
server_key = OpenSSL::PKey.read <<~KEY
-----BEGIN PUBLIC KEY-----
MFkwEwYHKoZIzj0CAQYIKoZIzj0DAQcDQgAE5Km+yAxWRLRKJmJbfvZtSneKjlzu
0MWLAsmfDa3jzDB9QHEZVez8RlrX5w7vwjt01qQ9AdcitRxAL/v6vQEjsg==
-----END PUBLIC KEY-----
KEY
# ISO 3166 country code number
country_code = 826
# Broadcast ID is valid for 24 hours
current_time = Time.now.to_i
start_date = current_time - current_time % 86400
end_date = start_date + 86400
# Payload is a combination of start date, end date, id and country code
payload = [
[start_date].pack("N"), # 32-bit integer, unsigned, network order
[end_date].pack("N"), # 32-bit integer, unsigned, network order
uuid_bytes,
[country_code].pack("n"), # 16-bit integer, unsigned, network order
].join
# Random key per rotation period which is currently 24 hours
random_key = OpenSSL::PKey::EC.generate("prime256v1")
# Generate symmetric key for AES encryption
shared_key = random_key.dh_compute_key(server_key.public_key)
# Convert the ephemeral public key to bytes, removing the first byte
# which indicates form of the point on the elliptic curve. In this case
# it's assumed to be in uncompressed form.
shared_info = random_key.public_key.to_octet_string(:uncompressed)[1..-1]
# Derive AES key using ANSI x9.63 KDF
key = OpenSSL::Digest::SHA256.digest(shared_key + "\x00\x00\x00\x01" + shared_info)
# Encrypt the payload using AES-256-GCM
# The iv is set to zero since we're only using the key once.
cipher = OpenSSL::Cipher::AES.new(256, :GCM)
cipher.encrypt
cipher.key = key
cipher.iv_len = 16
cipher.iv = [0,0,0,0].pack("N*")
cipher.auth_data = ""
ciphertext = cipher.update(payload) + cipher.final
# Final cryptogram is 106 bytes in size:
# - 64 bytes public key
# - 26 bytes encrypted data
# - 16 bytes AES-GCM tag
cryptogram = shared_info + ciphertext + cipher.auth_tag
# Array to hold our transmitted messages for decryption in the server section below
messages = []
10.times do
payload = [
[country_code].pack("n"), # 16-bit integer, unsigned, network order
cryptogram,
[128].pack("C"), # tx power, 8-bit integer
[Time.now.to_i].pack("N"), # time of broadcast, 32-bit integer, unsigned, network order
].join
# Generate and append HMAC for verification using secret key linked to uuid
payload += OpenSSL::HMAC.digest("SHA256", payload, secret_key)[0..15]
# Transmit
messages << payload.unpack("H*").first.upcase
puts messages.last
# Application transmits every 8 seconds in reality
sleep 2
end
###################
### Server-side ###
###################
# Private key stored securely on server
private_key = OpenSSL::PKey.read <<~KEY
-----BEGIN EC PRIVATE KEY-----
MHcCAQEEINGxYo26SVpkM5uLK2PmNgRI9UOa8b82a1nE4ggL2lGNoAoGCCqGSM49
AwEHoUQDQgAE5Km+yAxWRLRKJmJbfvZtSneKjlzu0MWLAsmfDa3jzDB9QHEZVez8
RlrX5w7vwjt01qQ9AdcitRxAL/v6vQEjsg==
-----END EC PRIVATE KEY-----
KEY
# Database of registrations
# Represented here by a map of uuid => secret key so we can verify the message
registrations = {
"E1D160C7-F6E8-48BC-8687-63C696D910CB" => "3WEejyPI2UdjPKXb4PnedwqZudEqKURiuFKHzdOKZsE="
}
messages.each do |message|
data = [message].pack("H*")
# Remove the hmac to verify once we know the uuid
payload = data[0..-17]
hmac = data[-16..-1]
# Extract country code, cryptogram, tx power and broadcast time
country_code = payload[0..1].unpack("n").first
cryptogram = payload[2..107]
tx_power = payload[108].unpack("C").first
broadcast_at = Time.at(payload[109..-1].unpack("N").first).getutc
# Extract the public key, ciphertext and AES GCM tag
raw_key = cryptogram[0..63]
ciphertext = cryptogram[64..-17]
auth_tag = cryptogram[-16..-1]
# Convert the raw public key into an OpenSSL::PKey::EC::Point instance
public_key = OpenSSL::BN.new("\x04#{raw_key}", 2)
public_key = OpenSSL::PKey::EC::Point.new(private_key.group, public_key)
# Reconstruct the shared key from the ephemeral public key
shared_key = private_key.dh_compute_key(public_key)
# Reconstruct AES key using ANSI x9.63 KDF
key = OpenSSL::Digest::SHA256.digest(shared_key + "\x00\x00\x00\x01" + raw_key)
# Decrypt the ciphertext using AES-256-GCM
cipher = OpenSSL::Cipher::AES.new(256, :GCM)
cipher.decrypt
cipher.iv_len = 16
cipher.key = key
cipher.iv = [0,0,0,0].pack("N*")
cipher.auth_tag = auth_tag
cipher.auth_data = ""
plaintext = cipher.update(ciphertext) + cipher.final
# Extract the message details
start_date = Time.at(plaintext[0..3].unpack("N").first).getutc
end_date = Time.at(plaintext[4..7].unpack("N").first).getutc
uuid_bytes = plaintext[8..-3]
country = plaintext[-2..-1].unpack("n").first
uuid = "%X%X%X%X-%X%X-%X%X-%X%X-%X%X%X%X%X%X" % uuid_bytes.unpack("C*")
if registrations.key?(uuid)
server_hmac = OpenSSL::HMAC.digest("SHA256", payload, registrations[uuid])[0..15]
if hmac == server_hmac
puts <<~MSG
------------------------------------------------
UUID: #{uuid}
Country: #{country}
Start Date: #{start_date}
End Date: #{end_date}
TX Power: #{tx_power}
Time: #{broadcast_at}
MSG
else
puts "Error: invalid message"
end
else
puts "Error: uuid not found"
end
end
033A33F1694DEC1401F4B544E40CF758775228D18225769D590E27613053AA549830AB667027A5E8A34F81D7601F0186589A0967F31C2946C849DEAC3087A82EF3BB323F2556955F4B3CAEC632B7BA2117F2692476D423ED74643508C7C65D83B5370896BAD6D5E8AC35C5E4805EB5358F7C227668861764F2ABAF0B298CFA3390
033A33F1694DEC1401F4B544E40CF758775228D18225769D590E27613053AA549830AB667027A5E8A34F81D7601F0186589A0967F31C2946C849DEAC3087A82EF3BB323F2556955F4B3CAEC632B7BA2117F2692476D423ED74643508C7C65D83B5370896BAD6D5E8AC35C5E4805EB53591F73760A95259BC38F0DE99B366EA7233
033A33F1694DEC1401F4B544E40CF758775228D18225769D590E27613053AA549830AB667027A5E8A34F81D7601F0186589A0967F31C2946C849DEAC3087A82EF3BB323F2556955F4B3CAEC632B7BA2117F2692476D423ED74643508C7C65D83B5370896BAD6D5E8AC35C5E4805EB53593C70236F6E31AFA70B056C446FE2934DC
033A33F1694DEC1401F4B544E40CF758775228D18225769D590E27613053AA549830AB667027A5E8A34F81D7601F0186589A0967F31C2946C849DEAC3087A82EF3BB323F2556955F4B3CAEC632B7BA2117F2692476D423ED74643508C7C65D83B5370896BAD6D5E8AC35C5E4805EB5359570EC26F0300B75AAEBD77CB244A1A7ED
033A33F1694DEC1401F4B544E40CF758775228D18225769D590E27613053AA549830AB667027A5E8A34F81D7601F0186589A0967F31C2946C849DEAC3087A82EF3BB323F2556955F4B3CAEC632B7BA2117F2692476D423ED74643508C7C65D83B5370896BAD6D5E8AC35C5E4805EB53597A76F1301B6C95B96251E3F4D34271DDE
033A33F1694DEC1401F4B544E40CF758775228D18225769D590E27613053AA549830AB667027A5E8A34F81D7601F0186589A0967F31C2946C849DEAC3087A82EF3BB323F2556955F4B3CAEC632B7BA2117F2692476D423ED74643508C7C65D83B5370896BAD6D5E8AC35C5E4805EB5359973B3B6915FF5F1E319A50E8CCE6551BF
033A33F1694DEC1401F4B544E40CF758775228D18225769D590E27613053AA549830AB667027A5E8A34F81D7601F0186589A0967F31C2946C849DEAC3087A82EF3BB323F2556955F4B3CAEC632B7BA2117F2692476D423ED74643508C7C65D83B5370896BAD6D5E8AC35C5E4805EB5359B754152E68B48D38EBAF7DE2A274D7F39
033A33F1694DEC1401F4B544E40CF758775228D18225769D590E27613053AA549830AB667027A5E8A34F81D7601F0186589A0967F31C2946C849DEAC3087A82EF3BB323F2556955F4B3CAEC632B7BA2117F2692476D423ED74643508C7C65D83B5370896BAD6D5E8AC35C5E4805EB5359D6341FEF65CA49B3A239BBBF845B22A9C
033A33F1694DEC1401F4B544E40CF758775228D18225769D590E27613053AA549830AB667027A5E8A34F81D7601F0186589A0967F31C2946C849DEAC3087A82EF3BB323F2556955F4B3CAEC632B7BA2117F2692476D423ED74643508C7C65D83B5370896BAD6D5E8AC35C5E4805EB5359FC4F35A7A832E9BF16B517865140AE896
033A33F1694DEC1401F4B544E40CF758775228D18225769D590E27613053AA549830AB667027A5E8A34F81D7601F0186589A0967F31C2946C849DEAC3087A82EF3BB323F2556955F4B3CAEC632B7BA2117F2692476D423ED74643508C7C65D83B5370896BAD6D5E8AC35C5E4805EB535A10D05D561BB4DF48FB28ED22EC57C34F7
------------------------------------------------
UUID: E1D160C7-F6E8-48BC-8687-63C696D910CB
Country: 826
Start Date: 2020-05-08 00:00:00 UTC
End Date: 2020-05-09 00:00:00 UTC
TX Power: 128
Time: 2020-05-08 10:33:51 UTC
------------------------------------------------
UUID: E1D160C7-F6E8-48BC-8687-63C696D910CB
Country: 826
Start Date: 2020-05-08 00:00:00 UTC
End Date: 2020-05-09 00:00:00 UTC
TX Power: 128
Time: 2020-05-08 10:33:53 UTC
------------------------------------------------
UUID: E1D160C7-F6E8-48BC-8687-63C696D910CB
Country: 826
Start Date: 2020-05-08 00:00:00 UTC
End Date: 2020-05-09 00:00:00 UTC
TX Power: 128
Time: 2020-05-08 10:33:55 UTC
------------------------------------------------
UUID: E1D160C7-F6E8-48BC-8687-63C696D910CB
Country: 826
Start Date: 2020-05-08 00:00:00 UTC
End Date: 2020-05-09 00:00:00 UTC
TX Power: 128
Time: 2020-05-08 10:33:57 UTC
------------------------------------------------
UUID: E1D160C7-F6E8-48BC-8687-63C696D910CB
Country: 826
Start Date: 2020-05-08 00:00:00 UTC
End Date: 2020-05-09 00:00:00 UTC
TX Power: 128
Time: 2020-05-08 10:33:59 UTC
------------------------------------------------
UUID: E1D160C7-F6E8-48BC-8687-63C696D910CB
Country: 826
Start Date: 2020-05-08 00:00:00 UTC
End Date: 2020-05-09 00:00:00 UTC
TX Power: 128
Time: 2020-05-08 10:34:01 UTC
------------------------------------------------
UUID: E1D160C7-F6E8-48BC-8687-63C696D910CB
Country: 826
Start Date: 2020-05-08 00:00:00 UTC
End Date: 2020-05-09 00:00:00 UTC
TX Power: 128
Time: 2020-05-08 10:34:03 UTC
------------------------------------------------
UUID: E1D160C7-F6E8-48BC-8687-63C696D910CB
Country: 826
Start Date: 2020-05-08 00:00:00 UTC
End Date: 2020-05-09 00:00:00 UTC
TX Power: 128
Time: 2020-05-08 10:34:05 UTC
------------------------------------------------
UUID: E1D160C7-F6E8-48BC-8687-63C696D910CB
Country: 826
Start Date: 2020-05-08 00:00:00 UTC
End Date: 2020-05-09 00:00:00 UTC
TX Power: 128
Time: 2020-05-08 10:34:07 UTC
------------------------------------------------
UUID: E1D160C7-F6E8-48BC-8687-63C696D910CB
Country: 826
Start Date: 2020-05-08 00:00:00 UTC
End Date: 2020-05-09 00:00:00 UTC
TX Power: 128
Time: 2020-05-08 10:34:09 UTC
------------------------------------------------
@pixeltrix
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pixeltrix commented May 8, 2020

I think the ruby implementation of SecKeyCreateEncryptedData with the algorithm eciesEncryptionStandardVariableIVX963SHA256AESGCM is correct - happy to be corrected if not.

This is just a direct decryption of the transmitted messages - in reality when the app receives these it also includes the RSSI and submits that along with the above messages to the server so it can do a comparison of apparent signal strength to transmitted power and estimate distance between the two devices

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