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# function to train the model
def train():
model.train()
total_loss, total_accuracy = 0, 0
# empty list to save model predictions
total_preds=[]
# iterate over batches
for step,batch in enumerate(train_dataloader):
# progress update after every 50 batches.
if step % 50 == 0 and not step == 0:
print(' Batch {:>5,} of {:>5,}.'.format(step, len(train_dataloader)))
# push the batch to gpu
batch = [r.to(device) for r in batch]
sent_id, mask, labels = batch
# clear previously calculated gradients
model.zero_grad()
# get model predictions for the current batch
preds = model(sent_id, mask)
# compute the loss between actual and predicted values
loss = cross_entropy(preds, labels)
# add on to the total loss
total_loss = total_loss + loss.item()
# backward pass to calculate the gradients
loss.backward()
# clip the the gradients to 1.0. It helps in preventing the exploding gradient problem
torch.nn.utils.clip_grad_norm_(model.parameters(), 1.0)
# update parameters
optimizer.step()
# model predictions are stored on GPU. So, push it to CPU
preds=preds.detach().cpu().numpy()
# append the model predictions
total_preds.append(preds)
# compute the training loss of the epoch
avg_loss = total_loss / len(train_dataloader)
# predictions are in the form of (no. of batches, size of batch, no. of classes).
# reshape the predictions in form of (number of samples, no. of classes)
total_preds = np.concatenate(total_preds, axis=0)
#returns the loss and predictions
return avg_loss, total_preds
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