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@pudquick pudquick/00_notes.md
Last active Oct 14, 2019

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Discovering variable/constant values in frameworks
import objc
import types
from ctypes import cast, c_void_p, POINTER
from Foundation import CFBundleCreate, NSURL, NSBundle
pointer_pointer = POINTER(c_void_p)
OpaqueCFTypeRef = objc.createOpaquePointerType('OpaqueCFTypeRef', '^{OpaqueCFType=}', None)
def value(self):
# CFBundleGetDataPointerForName when used with framework variables (aka constants) returns pointers to the actual objects
# So we need to take that pointer, de-reference it, then convert it back to whatver type it is (usually NSString/CFStringRef)
obj = cast(self.__pointer__, pointer_pointer).contents
return objc.objc_object(c_void_p=obj)
# attach it to the class
OpaqueCFTypeRef.value = types.MethodType(value, None, OpaqueCFTypeRef)
# pyobjc doesn't like loading CFBundleGetDataPointerForName for us
CoreFoundation = NSBundle.bundleWithPath_('/System/Library/Frameworks/CoreFoundation.framework')
objc.loadBundleFunctions(CoreFoundation, globals(), [('CFBundleGetDataPointerForName', '^{OpaqueCFType=}@@')])
def frameworkVariable(bundle_path, vname):
# Trying to use CFBundleGetDataPointerForName with NSBundle loaded bundles doesn't seem to work, so let's use CFBundle
b_dir = NSURL.fileURLWithPath_isDirectory_(bundle_path, True)
bundle = CFBundleCreate(None, b_dir)
return CFBundleGetDataPointerForName(bundle, vname).value()
frameworkVariable('/System/Library/Frameworks/CoreServices.framework/Versions/A/Frameworks/Metadata.framework', 'kMDSPreferencesName')

... but sometimes you'll find values that you get hits for, but none of these 3 methods are able to load the value.

That's because a variable can be flagged as externally available or not.

If you want to see a list of all the symbols, available externally or not, you can use lldb:

 lldb /System/Library/Frameworks/CoreServices.framework/Versions/A/Frameworks/Metadata.framework/Metadata -o 'ta modules dump symtab' -o 'quit'

Looking through the output, you see:

Symtab, file = /System/Library/Frameworks/CoreServices.framework/Versions/A/Frameworks/Metadata.framework/Metadata, num_symbols = 4552:
              Debug symbol
              |Synthetic symbol
              ||Externally Visible
              |||
Index   UserID DSX Type            File Address/Value Load Address       Size               Flags      Name
------- ------ --- --------------- ------------------ ------------------ ------------------ ---------- ----------------------------------
...
[ 3674]   3674   X Data            0x00000000008a4e58                    0x0000000000000008 0x000f0000 kMDSPreferencesName

That "X" = Externally Visible

Other symbols, however, you may not see that X:

lldb /System/Library/Frameworks/OpenDirectory.framework/Frameworks/CFOpenDirectory.framework/CFOpenDirectory -o 'ta modules dump symtab' -o 'quit'
Symtab, file = /System/Library/Frameworks/OpenDirectory.framework/Frameworks/CFOpenDirectory.framework/CFOpenDirectory, num_symbols = 1289:
               Debug symbol
               |Synthetic symbol
               ||Externally Visible
               |||
Index   UserID DSX Type            File Address/Value Load Address       Size               Flags      Name
------- ------ --- --------------- ------------------ ------------------ ------------------ ---------- ----------------------------------
...
[  389]    389     Data            0x000000000001df80                    0x0000000000000008 0x001e0000 kODKeyConfigNodeName

With a tool like Hopper, however, you can look up the value.

                     _kODKeyConfigNodeName:
000000000000c838         db  0xa8 ; '.'                                         ; DATA XREF=+[ODConfiguration configurationWithDictionary:session:]+202, -[ODConfiguration configuration]+191
000000000000c839         db  0xd0 ; '.'
000000000000c83a         db  0x00 ; '.'
000000000000c83b         db  0x00 ; '.'
000000000000c83c         db  0x00 ; '.'
000000000000c83d         db  0x00 ; '.'
000000000000c83e         db  0x00 ; '.'
000000000000c83f         db  0x00 ; '.'

Looking at the bottom of Hopper, you see this is Segment __DATA, section __const

The data for that entry shows: a8d0000000000000, which translates to the address 000000000000d0a8

Going to address 0xd0a8 in Hopper reveals:

                     cfstring_node_name:
000000000000d0a8         dq         0x0000000000020558, 0x00000000000007c8, 0x0000000000009891, 0x0000000000000009 ; "node name"

Cool - we learned that the string value for the constant kODKeyConfigNodeName is "node name", even though it's not externally available.

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