Skip to content

Instantly share code, notes, and snippets.

Created March 12, 2016 07:11
Show Gist options
  • Save sandeepraju/4934282f5f87c83ddd93 to your computer and use it in GitHub Desktop.
Save sandeepraju/4934282f5f87c83ddd93 to your computer and use it in GitHub Desktop.
Transparent Git Encryption

Transparent Git Encryption

This document has been modified from its original format, which was written by Ning Shang ( It has been updated and reformatted into a Markdown document by Woody Gilk and republished.


When working with a remote git repository which is hosted on a third-party storage server, data confidentiality sometimes becomes a concern. This article walks you through the procedures of setting up git repositories for which your local working directories are as normal (un-encrypted) but the committed content is encrypted.

The Story

I use git and Dropbox as a reliable, highly available, cost saving and distributed version control solution, and have really found it convenient and effective. One thing that is not addressed in this solution is data privacy/confidentiality. As Dropbox is a third-party data storage service with Amazon S3 as its backend data store, a paranoid user like myself would always be concerned about the Dropbox hosted data being disclosed to others, accidentally or deliberately. After all, putting unconditional trust on a third-party provider never seems to be a perfect rescue.

User controlled end-to-end encryption solves the problem: before data is pushed to the remote repository to store, it is encrypted with an encryption key which is known only to the data owner itself. Management of the encryption key(s) and the encryption/decryption processes is always tedious and easy to get wrong. In the following, we shall demonstrate how to use Git with encryption in a way transparent to the end user.

Before we start the demonstration, the following software packages need to be installed: git (version 1.7.1 for the demonstration), openssl 4 (version 0.9.8o 01 Jun 2010 for the demonstration). The operating system for the demonstration is Linux (Ubuntu 10.10).

The idea is to leverage git's smudge/clean filter, hinted by this discussion, in which GPG is proposed as the encryption method, we use OpenSSL's symmetric key cipher as it is a better suitable solution.


The procedures are as follows.

  1. Before the git repository is created, in your home directory

    $ mkdir .gitencrypt $ cd !$

Create three files

$ touch clean_filter_openssl smudge_filter_openssl diff_filter_openssl 
$ chmod 755 *

These files will be the clean/smudge/diff handler/hook for the git repository which we are going to work with.

The first file is clean_filter_openssl:


SALT_FIXED=<your-salt> # 24 or less hex characters

openssl enc -base64 -aes-256-ecb -S $SALT_FIXED -k $PASS_FIXED

Here replace <your-salt> with a random hexadecimal string and replace <your-passphrase> with a passphrase you will use as a mater secret for the symmetric key encryption/decryption. We are using AES-256 ECB mode as the encryption algorithm, as it turns out a deterministic encryption works best with git (we will explain later).

The next file is smudge_filter_openssl:


# No salt is needed for decryption.

# If decryption fails, use `cat` instead. 
# Error messages are redirected to /dev/null.
openssl enc -d -base64 -aes-256-ecb -k $PASS_FIXED 2> /dev/null || cat

The last file is diff_filter_openssl:


# No salt is needed for decryption.

# Error messages are redirect to /dev/null.
openssl enc -d -base64 -aes-256-ecb -k $PASS_FIXED -in "$1" 2> /dev/null || cat "$1"

Files in the .gitencrypt directory should be locally kept and never shared with anyone you do not want to have access to your data, as they contain your decryption passphrase.

  1. Change to the project directory where the git repository is to be created. Suppose this directory is ~/myproj/.

    $ git init

Now, create a .gitattributes file:

$ touch .gitattributes

Add the following content to .gitattributes:

* filter=openssl diff=openssl
    renormalize = true

In this file, the filter and diff attributes are assigned to drivers named openssl, which should be defined in .git/config as follows.

[filter "openssl"]
    smudge = ~/.gitencrypt/smudge_filter_openssl
    clean = ~/.gitencrypt/clean_filter_openssl
[diff "openssl"]
    textconv = ~/.gitencrypt/diff_filter_openssl
  1. Now git add relevant files to the staging area. When you do this, the clean filter is applied to files in your working directory, i.e., it encrypts the files before they are checked into the staging area. Note that as a best practice, .gitattributes should not be added. At this time, you can use git diff as usual, as the diff filter is properly configured to compare the difference of only plain text data (it first decrypts if needed).

  2. Apply git commit to commit the changes to the repository.

  3. Now suppose the repository myproj is connected to a remote repository named Dropbox at file://~/myproj-remote.git, and you have pushed all the committed changes to it. Suppose you want to create another git repository in directory ~/myproj-1. First clone the remote repository without checking out the HEAD.

    $ git clone -o Dropbox -n file://myproj-remote.git myproj-1 $ cd myproj-1

Now create under myproj-1 a file .gitattributes with the same content as shown in Step 2. Then add/append the code snippet in .git/config in Step 2 to myproj-1/.git/config. Then reset the HEAD to check out all of the files.

$ git reset --hard HEAD

When the files are checked out, the smudge filter is automatically applied, decrypting the files in the repository and putting the decrypted files into your working directory. The reason non-deterministic encryption (what GPG does) does not work very well here is because the same file is transformed to a different ciphertext each time it is encrypted, doing a git status always shows the pulled files at modified, even though a git diff shows no difference. Checking in such modified files only replaces the old ciphertext with a new one which decrypts to the same file. If you work in two different local repositories synced to the same remote, the push/pull process will never end even if nothing is changed in your working directories. Using AES ECB mode with a fixed salt, although not semantically secure, resolves this problem while providing reasonable confidentiality.

From now on, you can work in the local repositories, push to or pull from the remote repository as usual, without noticing the encryption/decryption in the background.

I think this is cool.

Copy link

Is there a possibility to make git add -p work?

Copy link

dmos62 commented Jul 25, 2021

There's good reasons not to do this.

Here's a Wayback Machine link to the discussion link that's gone offline since posting:

To sum it up, Git assumes that the smudged version is non-authoritative and that the clean version is. Having clean encrypt and smudge decrypt flips the concept and makes many Git functions not work.

Sign up for free to join this conversation on GitHub. Already have an account? Sign in to comment