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Docker structure for deploying to multiple environments
#!/bin/sh
################################################################################
# This is a super simple, flexible wrapper for docker-compose command. #
################################################################################
ENV=${1:-prod}
BASE=$(pwd)
shift
COMPOSE=$(docker compose >/dev/null 2>&1 && echo 'docker compose' || echo 'docker-compose')
CONFIG=$([ -f $BASE/docker-compose.${ENV}.yml ] && echo $BASE/docker-compose.${ENV}.yml || echo $BASE/docker-compose.yml)
CMD="$COMPOSE -f $CONFIG $@"
################################################################################
echo "\nUsing services from ${CONFIG/$BASE\//}" >&1 && exec $CMD
version: "3"
services:
db:
extends:
file: services.yml
service: mysql
cache:
extends:
file: services.yml
service: redis
web:
extends:
file: services.yml
service: laravel
ports:
- 80:80
links:
- cache
- db
environment:
- APP_ENV=debug
- DATABASE_HOST=db
- REDIS_HOST=cache
- REDIS_PORT=6379
- BLACKFIRE_LOG_LEVEL=2
- BLACKFIRE_MEMORY_LIMIT=256
- BLACKFIRE_CLIENT_ID=${BLACKFIRE_CLIENT_ID:-}
- BLACKFIRE_CLIENT_TOKEN=${BLACKFIRE_CLIENT_TOKEN:-}
volumes:
- ./debug:/var/www/html:ro
agent:
extends:
file: services.yml
service: blackfire
links:
- web
environment:
- BLACKFIRE_CLIENT_ID=${BLACKFIRE_CLIENT_ID:-}
- BLACKFIRE_CLIENT_TOKEN=${BLACKFIRE_CLIENT_TOKEN:-}
- BLACKFIRE_SERVER_ID=${BLACKFIRE_SERVER_ID:-}
- BLACKFIRE_SERVER_TOKEN=${BLACKFIRE_SERVER_TOKEN:-}
version: "3"
services:
db:
extends:
file: services.yml
service: mysql
cache:
extends:
file: services.yml
service: redis
web-1:
extends:
file: services.yml
service: laravel
ports:
- 8001:80
links:
- cache
- db
environment:
- APP_ENV=local
- DATABASE_HOST=db
- REDIS_HOST=cache
- REDIS_PORT=6379
volumes:
- ./dev-1:/var/www/html:ro
web-2:
extends:
file: services.yml
service: php-apache
ports:
- 8002:80
volumes:
- ./dev-2:/var/www/html:ro
admin:
extends:
file: services.yml
service: phpmyadmin
ports:
- 8080:80
links:
- db
version: "3"
services:
gateway:
extends:
file: services.yml
service: traefik
ports:
- 80:80
- 443:443
cache:
extends:
file: services.yml
service: redis
backend:
extends:
file: services.yml
service: laravel
links:
- cache
environment:
- REDIS_HOST=cache
- REDIS_PORT=6379
volumes:
- ./webroot:/var/www/html:ro
labels:
- "traefik.http.services.laravel.loadbalancer.server.port=80"
- "traefik.http.routers.laravel-route.rule=Host(`mydomain.com`,`www.mydomain.com`)"
- "traefik.http.routers.laravel-route.service=laravel"

Beginning

There are many approaches to implementing a reuse of a common preset for Docker services for multiple environments, such as production and local environments.

This makes it possible to ensure the highest consistency for different environments with the same code-base. Implementing reuse of docker compose options also makes it easier to manage them.

I found on github a project called serversideup/spin. They took an approach using a feature called Docker overrides, to change some properties of common services for different environments.

After reading through their documentation, I realized that there are a few real-life cases where this project can not implement (or is difficult to archive).

That's why I decided to talk to the project owner and create this gists, for testing and discussion purposes.


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If you would like supporting my projects, buy me a coffee πŸ˜‰.

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I really appreciate your love and supports.


Use case

Let's assume that we need to build the following environments with the same code-base using the popular framework Laravel. The general requirement is that they should be as consistent as possible, and easy to operate.

General requirements

  • Use a redis instance as a cache service
  • Limit size of log files for all containers
  • Automatically restart the container when it fails
  • Simply launch docker for different environments
  • Friendly with docker compose CLI

Production

  • One web backend can scale to many instances
  • Use traefik as gateway, support HTTP and HTTPS
  • No need for other services like mysql, phpmyadmin attached

Local

  • Two instances for web backend to test 2 different branches of code
  • The first web backend runs on port 8001
  • Second web backend running on port 8002
  • Use additional mysql, phpmyadmin services for local development
  • phpmyadmin running on port 8080
  • No need to use traefik as gateway as each backend runs on its own port

Debug

  • A web backend instance, running on port 80
  • A blackfire service for profiling web backend
  • Use additional mysql, phpmyadmin services for local development
  • phpmyadmin running on port 8080
  • No need to use traefik as gateway as each backend runs on its own port

This setup should follow the official Docker guidlines as much as possible.

Implementation

Concept

I was able to easily implement the above requirements in a simple way following the following concept structure.

./
┝━ services.yml
┝━ docker-compose.prod.yml
┝━ docker-compose.local.yml
┝━ docker-compose.debug.yml
┝━ webroot/
┝━ dev-1/
┝━ dev-2/
┝━ debug/
└─ dcom.sh
  • services.yml contains definitions for all services
  • docker-compose.prod.yml contains services for production
  • docker-compose.local.yml contains services for local
  • docker-compose.debug.yml contains services for debug
  • webroot/ contains source code for production
  • dev-1/ and dev-2/ contain contain source code for local
  • debug/ contains source code for debug
  • dcom.sh is a wrapper script for docker compose

Running services

As a result, you can easily run a single command to start all the necessary services for each predefined environment with docker compose.

For example, to run services for the production environment:

docker-compose -f docker-compose.prod.yml up -d

Very simple, right?

You don't need any other shell script, nor do you need to remember complicated command syntax to run it.

The dcom.sh

You might be wondering: "What is the shell script dcom.sh for?", am I right?

This is a wrapper to shorten your command line. dcom is short for "docker-compose".

We use it like this:

./dcom.sh env_name [arguments]

For example, to run services for the production environment:

./dcom.sh prod up -d

The parameter for dcom.sh is fully compatible with docker-compose interface.

Wait a second!

./dcom.sh prod up -d

Q: I am running this on production environment. As mentioned on the Use case, I want to run the service backend in 2 different instances on production, how can I do that?

A: It's very simple, you just need to run the command below, traefik will act as a load balancer for those instances intelligently.

./dcom.sh prod up -d --scale backend=2

Then check all running services with this:

./dcom.sh prod ps

Ref: Docker Compose CLI reference


If you like this project, please support my works πŸ˜‰.

From Vietnam πŸ‡»πŸ‡³ with love.

version: "3"
################################################################################
################################################################################
services:
##############################################################################
##############################################################################
common:
platform: ${DOCKER_PLATFORM:-linux/amd64}
restart: ${DOCKER_RESTART:-unless-stopped}
logging:
driver: ${DOCKER_LOG_DRIVER:-json-file}
options:
max-size: ${DOCKER_LOG_SIZE:-32m}
max-file: ${DOCKER_LOG_COUNT:-10}
common-debug:
extends: common
cap_add:
- SYS_PTRACE
##############################################################################
##############################################################################
traefik:
image: traefik:2.6
extends: common
volumes:
- ./certs:/etc/certs
- /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock:ro,cached
command:
- "--api.dashboard"
- "--api.insecure"
- "--log.level=INFO"
- "--global.sendAnonymousUsage=false"
### HTTP
- "--entrypoints.http.address=:80"
- "--entryPoints.http.forwardedHeaders.insecure"
### HTTPS
- "--entrypoints.https.address=:443"
- "--entrypoints.https.http.tls=true"
- "--entrypoints.https.http.tls.certResolver=my-acme"
### Providers
- "--providers.docker"
- "--providers.docker.exposedByDefault=false"
- "--providers.docker.watch"
### Let's encrypt
- "--certificatesresolvers.my-acme.acme.httpchallenge=true"
- "--certificatesresolvers.my-acme.acme.httpchallenge.entrypoint=http"
- "--certificatesresolvers.my-acme.acme.email=shin@shin.company"
- "--certificatesresolvers.my-acme.acme.storage=/etc/certs/acme.json"
##############################################################################
##############################################################################
mysql:
image: mysql:5.7
extends: common
environment:
MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: p@ssw0rd
##############################################################################
##############################################################################
memcached:
image: memcached:1.6-alpine
extends: common
##############################################################################
##############################################################################
redis:
image: redis:6-alpine
extends: common
environment:
ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD: "yes"
##############################################################################
##############################################################################
php-apache:
image: php:8.1-apache
extends: common-debug
healthcheck:
test: "curl -f 'http://localhost' || exit 1"
start_period: 30s
interval: 1m
timeout: 5s
labels:
- "traefik.enable=true"
##############################################################################
##############################################################################
laravel:
extends: php-apache
environment:
- APP_ENV=production
##############################################################################
##############################################################################
blackfire:
image: blackfire/blackfire:2
extends: common-debug
environment:
- BLACKFIRE_DISABLE_LEGACY_PORT=8307
- BLACKFIRE_LOG_LEVEL=4
- BLACKFIRE_MEMORY_LIMIT=256
##############################################################################
##############################################################################
phpmyadmin:
image: phpmyadmin:apache
extends: common-debug
environment:
- PMA_ARBITRARY=1
- PMA_HOST=db
- PMA_USER=root
- PMA_PASSWORD=p@ssw0rd
@shinsenter
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shinsenter commented Jan 27, 2022

It would be great if the owner of the serversideup/spin project cites my idea in case they want a reference to improve their project in the future.

@jaydrogers
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jaydrogers commented Feb 4, 2022

Thanks Shin!

Thanks for your interest in spin. You have some great ideas and points here.

Long story short:
Yes, spin will work with any Docker Compose file as long as it the directory looks like:

.
β”œβ”€β”€ docker-compose.dev.yml
└── docker-compose.yml

If you have more environments, I could possibly add a spin --env=debug up, which would result in:

docker compose -f docker-compose.yml -f docker-compose.debug.yml

The only trick would be getting your services.yml file in there (not sure if I have to include that in the command or if it will automatically grab it from the instruction in the YML).

Responding to your questions

Here are my responses to your questions:

General requirements

  • Use a redis instance as a cache service

Check this for an example: https://serversideup.net/open-source/spin/common-services/redis

  • Limit size of log files for all containers

We run Docker Swarm in production. It just ties into your "docker logs" which can be centralized and cleaned up nicely.

  • Automatically restart the container when it fails

Docker Swarm has this built-in: https://docs.docker.com/config/containers/start-containers-automatically/

  • Simply launch docker for different environments

Spin does this (just basically a shortcut to docker-compose.dev.yml), but the different environments is at our core: https://serversideup.net/open-source/spin/getting-started/introduction

  • Friendly with docker compose CLI

Spin passes the commands to docker compose and simply just lets Docker do the rest of the work: https://serversideup.net/open-source/spin/getting-started/introduction

Production

  • One web backend can scale to many instances

You can do that with Docker Swarm: https://docs.docker.com/engine/swarm/admin_guide/

  • Use traefik as gateway, support HTTP and HTTPS

We ❀️ Traefik! https://serversideup.net/open-source/spin/common-services/traefik

  • No need for other services like mysql, phpmyadmin attached

Just add what you need in your compose files πŸ˜ƒ

Local

  • Two instances for web backend to test 2 different branches of code
  • The first web backend runs on port 8001
  • Second web backend running on port 8002

Not sure if I fully understand this? You could technically do that by just changing the volume of the webserver that you're running. The only challenge is different branches... It would have to be separate folders or submodules.

  • Use additional mysql, phpmyadmin services for local development

Yup, just add it in your docker-compose.dev.yml.

  • phpmyadmin running on port 8080

Definitely easy to do: https://hub.docker.com/_/phpmyadmin

  • No need to use traefik as gateway as each backend runs on its own port

Since we run Traefik in production, we also run it in development. We try to minimize surprises that way πŸ˜…

Debug

  • A web backend instance, running on port 80

Yup, just add to docker-compose.dev.yml

  • A blackfire service for profiling web backend

Never heard of this, but it looks cool πŸ€“

@shinsenter
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shinsenter commented Feb 5, 2022

@jaydrogers

Thank you for taking time to go through the details of my example, and for suggestions for things that I have wondered about before.

You have put a lot of effort into spin, I think it will be a great project.

I still have the feeling that the percentage of options being reused in your examples becomes less and decays between different environments.

I've also never used Docker Swarm for my previous projects, as most of the time I've been able to deploy medium to large systems using only docker-compose. This gist is just a small example drawn from my experience. I think I should learn more about Swarm. Thanks for the suggestions!

Regards.

@jaydrogers
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jaydrogers commented Feb 7, 2022

Thanks @shinsenter! I greatly appreciate your compliments and honesty. I'm also thankful that you can share constructive feedback respectively (great way to learn!).

Regarding your comment:

I still have the feeling that the percentage of options being reused in your examples becomes less and decays between different environments.

Can you explain more? We've been running the "spin" set up for over a year in production and I have yet to run into any limitations. This includes running apps that have a stack of:

  • Laravel
  • VueJS
  • Melisearch
  • Laravel Task Runner
  • Laravel Queue
  • Laravel Horizon
  • Redis
  • Soketi

(all in one app and across 10 developer machines, a CI environment, a staging environment, and a production environment)

So far our experience has been great, but I want to make sure I understand your perspective too.

I've also never used Docker Swarm for my previous projects, as most of the time I've been able to deploy medium to large systems using only docker-compose. This gist is just a small example drawn from my experience. I think I should learn more about Swarm. Thanks for the suggestions!

The biggest reason why we went with Swarm because we're able to run deployments with zero-downtime. There's a lot of health check stuff built-in that we benefit from as well.

@shinsenter
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Author

shinsenter commented Feb 8, 2022

@jaydrogers

I still have the feeling that the percentage of options being reused in your examples becomes less and decays between different environments.

Can you explain more? We've been running the "spin" set up for over a year in production and I have yet to run into any limitations.

Specifically, after going through your example, I am confused as to why create 2 docker-compose files when I can simply use just docker-compose.dev.yml. I'm not saying your concept is incorrect, please don't misunderstand me.

From a DevOps point of view, I don't really see the point of creating a docker-compose.yml file in your example. For me, in most practical cases, I just bring the contents of the docker-compose.yml file into the docker-compose.dev.yml file, it should work! Then I may not need spin because the docker-compose command has also become simpler.

In other cases, your wordpress example, I find the docker-compose files for various environments are mostly written quite differently, which means the reusability of those environments is low, and they will lack of consistency. At that time, I thought that overriding the base docker-compose.yml file was not necessary anymore.

Last but not least.

Screen Shot 2022-02-08 at 11 02 10

I believe you will be able to gradually improve this project, and in the future it will not only be used for development, but can be more flexible for medium and large projects to use.

Regards.

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