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Querying 2.0

Querying 2.0 and Unlocking Better Abstractions

Querying is one of the most important features of Gatsby today. But we also have several limitations today. This document will talk about out work on Querying 2.0 which will feature several improvements over current functionality and unlock things that aren't possible with Gatsby today.

Querying 1.0

Currently, we have page queries and static queries. Page queries support variables but only when passed in as part of page context and static queries need to static and therefore do not support variables.

Current limitations?

The biggest limitation of our current approach is that we are at best able to create leaky abstractions. Let's look at a canonical example, gatsby-image

Imagine a perfectly encapsulated image component. What parameters would it accept?

<Img url="gatsby-astronaut.png" />

gatsby-image looks more like:

<Img fluid={data.placeholderImage.childImageSharp.fluid} />

This is a leaky abstraction. Why? Because to use Img, a user has to:

  • make the query themselves
  • know the shape of the data that Img needs
  • what a childImageSharp is

This stems from the fact that we don't support queries with variables at arbitrary depths in the tree.

Therefore, there is no way to pass in an arbitrary var as the url for the current image.

But why Sid

Let's look at how we run queries today. We use babel to parse user land code and look for queries (page and static). Every time we visit one:

  • we extract the query
  • we run it against our GraphQL schema
  • we write the results back to JSON files
  • etc

The biggest issue with parsing user land code and extracting out queries from an AST is the loss of surrounding context. To be able to support arbitrary variables in queries, we need to evaluate code, not parse it.

Eval versus Parse

How do we evaluate all JavaScript code surrounding our queries? We already do! Every time we run ReactDOMServer.renderToString, we're literally running all (in render functions) user land code.

We need to be able to hook into this process. Suspense (and more importantly the React Fiber rewrite) enables pausing (and persisting slices of) renders and continuing when ready. In our case, we'd pause while we run the query and fetch data.

Querying 2.0

Querying 2.0 will have one big feature that will enable everything else. Say hello to useQuery.


useQuery will replace useStaticQuery and (maybe) page queries as well. It will be a React hook that will take a query and variables and throw a Promise (similar to react-cache) that will resolve to the result of the query.

It will be callable anywhere in the component tree and will support build time variables (and eventually run time, read on).

Internally, it will throw a Promise that will suspend the render. A top level context provider (gatsby-cache) will contain a map of query (and variable) hash to result.

This will enable us to build non leaky abstractions like:

<Img url="gatsby-astronaut.png" />


Suspense is currently not available for SSR. This is something the React team is working on. However, looking at this deeper, we see that the nuance dictates that SSR is a different animal for general use cases in React and for Gatsby.

The general use cases in React will likely want to optimise for runtime performance (including streaming results etc) whereas Gatsby doesn't really care for that much since we run SSR at build time.

The solution to this is two-pass rendering.

Two Passes

What we need to do is run a pre pass on the component tree first. By pass, I mean traverse the component tree and execute code in render for all the components. In this pass, we will effectively collect a snapshot of queries and surrounding variables.

The second pass will be regular old ReactDOMServer.renderToString.

Eventually Single Pass

Once Suspense support is out in ReactDOMServer, we should be able to remove the first pass and everything should just work.

First class support for Fragments

First class support for fragments (like what Relay does) is something that I think would be very valuable to have in Gatsby. I haven't thought this through this but I imagine a useFragment like hook that will enable fragments to collate upwards in the tree (in the nearest parent that calls the query perhaps) could be useful.

Caching and better reuse

Since we'll have a cache implementation (gatsby-cache), we should be able to do much better caching and ideally not rerun queries in case of multiple instances (static queries that are identical currently run n times, n being the number of their instances)

Queries on demand

This naturally (and might I add, very elegantly) translates into querying on demand. Queries will only be run on page renders. We should still be able to pre-run some queries if we would like to but I think this will be a nice default to have as we scale.

Support for subscriptions

Querying 2.0 should involve a mechanism to enable subscriptions. I haven't thought this through yet but I imagine a @live directive that will:

  • mark some queries as runnable on the client
  • connect to a Gatsby cloud service that serves the GraphQL instance for the site

gatsby-cache should be able to transparently support this in the future.


  1. Runtime here is at build time? This will largely be an educational issue that we will have to document well. Some users might confuse when something in the render function (in context of a query) is run. Think of a query that takes a time stamp as a variable. The query will still be run at build time of course while the user might expect it to update when in the client.

  2. What about conditional components that might not render at build time? Hooks cannot be used inside conditionals inside a render function. The only possibility here is whole components not being rendered at build time and being rendered at runtime. A common example of this is a mobile first SSRed website running on desktop. We should be able to lint for this but I'm not sure and this warrants further discussion.

  3. How do you query this post hydration? Read about subscriptions above.

  4. With incremental builds, we won't run SSR for everything on every build. How do we track query dependencies in that case? This will be interesting to solve and will need some discussion. With incremental builds, we will need to track dependencies and arrive at an entry point that will have to be SSRed again. Since that entry point will be a parent of the component that includes the query, this should be fine. Also, to begin with, incremental builds will likely track code changes as whole rebuilds so this shouldn't be a problem.

Rough todo

  • Complete proof of concept with react-ssr-prepass
  • Implement new querying engine
  • Deprecate page and static queries
  • Write code mods for page and static queries
  • Write documentation
  • Release
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useQuery will replace useStaticQuery and (maybe) page queries as well.

This sounds so cool! The distinction between static and page queries is NOT obvious or clear to most people. So if we could abstract that away, I think it would be a huge win...alongside the benefits of being able to use variables. That will be amazing for images.

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vladar commented Dec 25, 2019

Sid, fantastic writeup! I wasn't here when you wrote this but just came up with the same idea (SSR+Suspense for static queries)! Even had the same thought about two-pass rendering! Great stuff, looking forward to us starting working on this!

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We now have a working prototype.

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kdichev commented Jan 2, 2020

We use Contentful API that has some pretty strong API limitations such as query complexity and payload size. I see these as a great way to split out the queries to smaller ones.

great work!

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I can't wait to take advantage of useQuery with Agility CMS! Right now our source plugin delivers MOST of the content that you need to render a page, however we rely on the developer to write queries on Shared Lists and Items, not to mention content coming from other source plugins. Being able to query based on runtime variables would be a huge benefit!

Question: would the source plugin be responsible for tracking dependencies somehow?

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I'd love to use useQuery for a little plugin i have gatsby-mdx-routes I'd like users to be able to have any field they like in the frontmatter and then pass it in via a prop on the MdxRoutes component to be used in the static query.

I had previously thought this is a very round about way of getting frontmatter since creating you own static query specific for your navigation needs in your project is not a big task but "query vars" do open up a lot more potential for plugin creators, so i'm looking forward to seeing where this goes and testing it out when it's stable... Keep up the great work @sidharthachatterjee

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jnsrikanth commented Feb 29, 2020

We now have a working prototype.

Hi Sid, where is the link to the working prototype for this dynamic querying?

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Any updates on this?

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