I’m a web app that wants to allow other web apps access to my users’ information, but I want to ensure that the user says it’s ok.
I can’t trust the other web apps, so I must interact with my users directly. I’ll let them know that the other app is trying to get their info, and ask whether they want to grant that permission. Oauth defines a way to initiate that permission verification from the other app’s site so that the user experience is smooth. If the user grants permission, I issue an AuthToken to the other app which it can use to make requests for that user's info.
Note on encryption
Oauth2 has nothing to do with encryption -- it relies upon SSL to keep things (like the client app’s shared_secret) secure.