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Ford SYNC 3 is unable to connect to 802.11r-capable wireless networks

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Ford SYNC 3 is unable to connect to 802.11r-capable wireless networks

Ford SYNC 3 includes an 802.11b/g/n wifi client, but it is unable to connect to wireless networks that support 802.11r Fast Transitions.

In short: when SYNC 3 tries to connect to a network that supports 802.11r, it says "I want to use 802.11r" and "I want to use non-802.11r security", so it can't connect.

That's it.


802.11r Fast Transitions are a feature intended to support wireless clients that require mobility and, well, fast transitions between access points. Devices such as VoIP phones benefit from the ability to transition from one access point to another with minimal disruption to traffic flow. 802.11r FT is an optional feature incorporated into 802.11n and into the mainline standard as of IEEE Std 802.11-2012.


When SYNC 3's 802.11n client software attempts to connect to an access point that supports 802.11r Fast Transitions, it attempts an 802.11r FT association using a non-802.11r security scheme. This is expressly prohibited; the standard requires that access points refuse such connections. As a consequence, SYNC 3 is unable to connect.

Technical description

SYNC 3 constructs and transmits an Association Request frame with two contradictory pieces of information in this scenario.

First is the Mobility Domain element (MDE). This element indicates that SYNC 3 a) is aware of 802.11r and b) wishes to connect to a specific 802.11r mobility domain. The inclusion of an MDE makes SYNC 3's association request an "FT initial mobility domain association in an RSN" per IEEE Std 802.11-2012 § 12.4.2:

A STA indicates its support for the FT procedures by including the MDE in the (Re)Association Request frame and indicates its support of security by including the RSNE.

Second is the Robust Securtity Network element (RSNE) which describes the parameters of the security scheme SYNC 3 will use. This is part of a negotiation with the access point; the access point states what it supports using RSNEs in Beacon and Probe Response frames, and the wireless client bases its RSNE on the intersection of what the AP supports and what the client supports. The RSNE includes an Authentication and Key Management (AKM) Suite selector, which dictates the procedure used to derive encryption keys.

An 802.11r-capable access point configured for WPA2-PSK will announce support for two AKM suites: 00-0F-AC:2 PSK and 00-0F-AC:4 FT authentication using PSK. (See IEEE Std 802.11-2012 § for a table.) FT authentication is designed to support transitions between multiple access points, whereas non-FT authentication is not.

SYNC 3's association request includes an MDE (indicating a desire to use FT) and a RSNE listing AKM suite 00-0F-AC:2 (indicating a desire to use non-FT authentication). This is expressly prohibited per IEEE Std 802.11-2012 § 12.4.2:

If an MDE is present in the (Re)Association Request frame and the contents of the RSNE do not indicate a negotiated AKM of Fast BSS Transition (suite type 00-0F-AC:3, 00-0F-AC:4, or 00-0F-AC:9), the AP shall reject the (Re)Association Request frame with status code 43 (i.e., Invalid AKMP).

It also doesn't make any objective sense, because fast transitions simply depend on FT authentication.


SYNC 3 must either:

  1. Stop attempting 802.11r FT associations (i.e. remove the MDE from its association request), or
  2. Begin attempting 802.11r FT associations using 802.11r FT authentication (i.e. update the WPA supplicant to support 802.11r AKM suites).
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