Mobile Safari's 100% Height Dilemma
Whether you're developing a web application with native-ish UI, or just a simple modal popup overlay that covers the viewport, when it comes to making things work on iDevices in Mobile Safari, you're in for a decent amount of pain and suffering. Making something "100% height" is not as easy as it seems.
This post is a collection of Mobile Safari's gotchas and quirks on that topic, some with solutions and fixes, some without, in good parts pulled from various sources across the internets, to have it all in one place. Things discussed here apply to iOS8, iOS9 and iOS10.
The Disappearing Browser Chrome
Screen real estate on smartphones is limited, so Mobile Safari collapses the browser chrome (address bar and optional tab bar at the top, and tool bar at the bottom) when the user scrolls down. When you want to make something span exactly the height of the viewport, or pin something to the bottom of the screen, this can get tricky because the viewport changes size (or