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CLI script to programmatically replace SSL certs on Synology NAS
# *** For DSM v7.x ***
# How to use this script:
# 1. Get your 3 PEM files ready to copy over from your local machine/update server (privkey.pem, fullchain.pem, cert.pem)
# and put into a directory (this will be $CERT_DIRECTORY).
# Personally, I use this script ( to automate steps 1 & 4.
# 2. Ensure you have a user setup on synology that has ssh access (and ssh access is setup).
# This user will need to be able to sudo as root (i.e. add this line to sudoers, <USER> is the user you create):
# <USER> ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: /var/services/homes/<USER>/
# 3. Copy this script to Synology: sudo scp $USER@$SYNOLOGY_SERVER:~/
# 4. Call this script as follows:
# sudo bash -c scp ${CERT_DIRECTORY}/{privkey,fullchain,cert}.pem $USER@$SYNOLOGY_SERVER:/tmp/ \
# && ssh $USER@$SYNOLOGY_SERVER 'sudo ./'
# Script start.
DEBUG= # Set to any non-empty value to turn on debug mode
error_exit() { echo "[ERROR] $1"; exit 1; }
warn() { echo "[WARN ] $1"; }
info() { echo "[INFO ] $1"; }
debug() { [[ "${DEBUG}" ]] && echo "[DEBUG ] $1"; }
# 1. Initialization
# =================
[[ "$EUID" -ne 0 ]] && error_exit "Please run as root" # Script only works as root
services_to_restart=("nmbd" "avahi" "ldap-server")
packages_to_restart=("ScsiTarget" "SynologyDrive" "WebDAVServer" "ActiveBackup")
# Add the default directory
if [[ -n "$default_dir_name" ]]; then
debug "Default cert directory found: '/usr/syno/etc/certificate/_archive/${default_dir_name}'"
warn "No default directory found. Probably unusual? Check: 'cat /usr/syno/etc/certificate/_archive/DEFAULT'"
# Add reverse proxy app directories
for proxy in /usr/syno/etc/certificate/ReverseProxy/*/; do
debug "Found proxy dir: ${proxy}"
[[ "${DEBUG}" ]] && set -x
# 2. Move and chown certificates from /tmp to default directory
# =============================================================
mv /tmp/{privkey,fullchain,cert}.pem "${certs_src_dir}/" || error_exit "Halting because of error moving files"
chown root:root "${certs_src_dir}/"{privkey,fullchain,cert}.pem || error_exit "Halting because of error chowning files"
info "Certs moved from /tmp & chowned."
# 3. Copy certificates to target directories if they exist
# ========================================================
for target_dir in "${target_cert_dirs[@]}"; do
if [[ ! -d "$target_dir" ]]; then
debug "Target cert directory '$target_dir' not found, skipping..."
info "Copying certificates to '$target_dir'"
if ! (cp "${certs_src_dir}/"{privkey,fullchain,cert}.pem "$target_dir/" && \
chown root:root "$target_dir/"{privkey,fullchain,cert}.pem); then
warn "Error copying or chowning certs to ${target_dir}"
# 4. Restart services & packages
# ==============================
info "Rebooting all the things..."
for service in "${services_to_restart[@]}"; do
/usr/syno/bin/synosystemctl restart "$service"
for package in "${packages_to_restart[@]}"; do # Restart packages that are installed & turned on
/usr/syno/bin/synopkg is_onoff "$package" 1>/dev/null && /usr/syno/bin/synopkg restart "$package"
# Faster ngnix restart (if certs don't appear to be refreshing, change to synosystemctl
if ! (/usr/syno/bin/synow3tool --gen-all && sudo systemctl reload nginx); then
warn "nginx failed to restart"
info "Completed"
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xiaozhuai commented Oct 5, 2023

Could you provide an example where this does not work as intended?

That's odd.
I try this script on my machine last time and foud the second command never exec.
And I'm sure the /usr/syno/bin/synow3tool --gen-all is ok.

Confirmed, the script is wrong. You can try below.

#!/usr/bin/env bash

if ! true && echo "Good"; then
    echo "Not good"

It prints nothing.
It should be

#!/usr/bin/env bash

if ! (true && echo "Good"); then
    echo "Not good"

And it prints Good.

So the script should change to

# Faster ngnix restart (if certs don't appear to be refreshing, change to systemctl restart)
if ! (/usr/syno/bin/synow3tool --gen-all && systemctl reload nginx); then
    warn "nginx failed to restart"

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catchdave commented Oct 5, 2023

Thanks --you are right, it should have parenthesis! I updated the script. Appreciate the suggestion, @xiaozhuai

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raven2cz commented Dec 9, 2023

Hello @catchdave. Nice script! I want to test it. But I have DS218+ where in all certs directories are not just 3 files which is copied by your script.
There are these structure:

cert.pem  chain.pem  fullchain.pem  info  privkey.pem  root.pem  short-chain.pem

I can create cert.pem chain.pem fullchain.pem privkey.pem
But I haven't idea about root.pem short-chain.pem.

Do you have same structure? Or is it something new? How to solve it? Thx for info.

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@raven2cz my advice is to initially manually add your LE cert and make it default. Through the DSM interface, the mapping of LE generated files is:

       	Private Key ---------------> privkey.pem
       	Certificate ---------------> cert.pem
	Intermediate Certificate --> fullchain.pem

Once that's done and the LE cert is now your default certificate, the script should work fine.

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bartowl commented Apr 10, 2024

Great script. You may also be interested in my old scripts for managing certificates also for other apps like MailStation and co. Recently I added also synow3tool call to be able to reload nginx properly in DSM7. This script presents jsut a slightly different approach and was mainly developed for DSM6. If you have a reliable way of reloading services in the absence of /usr/local/libexec/certificate.d/$subscriber in DSM7 I would really appreciate

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Hey everyone, it's been about a year since I started using this script.
I've never been able to get VPN working with the updated certs automatically (with the script).
The VPNCenter package does restart, and I also tried restarting OpenVPN manually, which also doesn't help. (/var/packages/VPNCenter/target/scripts/ restart)
It seems I always have to manually go over Control Panel --> Security --> Certificate, then with the Settings button I need to change the certificate for "VPN Server", save, and then change it back.
Only then the VPN Server's certificate is "updated".
Anyone here using this script to update VPN Center's certificates?

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telnetdoogie commented Jun 12, 2024

@footswitch VPN requires the intermediate certificate to be updated, you may have the wrong file names selected, see my comment a few back regarding starting out with manual setup before automation

Synology WILL accept using the fullchain.pem file as the "Certificate" file, however this causes VPN to fail. You need to use fullchain.pem only for the Intermediate Certificate, and cert.pem for "Certificate"

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...I only remember this because I ran into the same issue.

# modified version of
# 		 from
# - Important:
#       Before this script can run reliably, you must first manually import your LE certificates into DSM.
#       	Private Key ---------------> privkey.pem
#       	Certificate ---------------> cert.pem
#		Intermediate Certificate --> fullchain.pem
#	It's possible to initially import certs WITHOUT adding an Intermediate Cert, and while this works in most cases,
#	it will cause OpenVPN on Synology to fail, as it requires the intermediate certs present in fullchain.pem
#	You can also add fullchain.pem as the "Certificate" file, which works, but it's important to upload the correct files 
#	as above, so that the synology certificate sync tool will write the correct contents into the "info" files and associate
#	the correct files with the "cert", "chain", and "key".

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alejakun commented Jul 8, 2024

Hi everyone, somewhat related, but has anyone figured out how to do the same for Synology Routers (SRM 1.3)?

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