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Selenium Webdriver CheatSheet

API workthough

  1. Open a browser

    # start an instance of firefox with selenium-webdriver
    driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :firefox
    # :chrome -> chrome
    # :ie     -> iexplore
  • Go to a specified URL

    driver.get '' ''

    NOTE -- the WebDriver may not wait for the page to load, you'd better using explicit and implicit waits.

  • Locating Elements

    • find_element -- Find the first element matching the given arguments.

    • find_elements -- Find all elements matching the given arguments

    • By ID

      # example html
      # <input id="q">...</input>
      element = driver.find_element(:id, "q")
    • By Class Name

      # example html
      # <div class="highlight-java" style="display: none; ">...</div>
      element = driver.find_element(:class, 'highlight-java')
      # or
      element = driver.find_element(:class_name, 'highlight-java')
    • By Tag Name

      # example html
      # <div class="highlight-java" style="display: none; ">...</div>
      element = driver.find_element(:tag_name, 'div')
    • By Name

      # example html
      # <input id="q" name='search' type='text'>…</input>
      element = driver.find_element(:name, 'search')
    • By Link Text

      # example html
      # <a href="">cheese</a>
      element = driver.find_element(:link, 'cheese')
      # or			
      element = driver.find_element(:link_text, 'cheese')
    • By Partial Link Text

      # example html
      # <a href="">search for cheese</a>			
      element = driver.find_element(:partial_link_text, 'cheese')	
    • By XPath

      # example html
      # <ul class="dropdown-menu">
      #   <li><a href="/login/form">Login</a></li>
      #   <li><a href="/logout">Logout</a></li>
      # </ul>
      element = driver.find_element(:xpath, '//a[@href='/logout']')
      • NOTE -- When using Element#find_element with :xpath, be aware that,

        • webdriver follows standard conventions: a search prefixed with "//" will search the entire document, not just the children of this current node.
        • Use ".//" to limit your search to the children of the receiving Element.
    • By CSS Selector

        # example html
        # <div id="food">
        #   <span class="dairy">milk</span>
        #   <span class="dairy aged">cheese</span>
        # </div>
        element = driver.find_element(:css, #food span.dairy)
  • Element's operation

    • Button/Link/Image

      driver.find_element(:id, 'BUTTON_ID).click
    • Text Filed

      # input some text
      driver.find_element(:id, 'TextArea').send_keys 'InputText'
      # send keyboard actions, press `ctral+a` & `backspace`
      driver.find_element(:id, 'TextArea').send_keys [:contol, 'a'], :backspace
    • Checkbox/Radio

      # check if it is selected
      driver.find_element(:id, 'CheckBox').selected?
      # select the element
      driver.find_element(:id, 'CheckBox').click
      # deselect the element
      driver.find_element(:id, 'CheckBox').clear
    • Select

      # get the select element	
      select = driver.find_element(:tag_name, "select")
      # get all the options for this element
      all_options = select.find_elements(:tag_name, "option")
      # select the options
      all_options.each do |option|
       puts "Value is: " + option.attribute("value")
      # anthoer way is using the Select class after seleniun-webdriver 2.14		
      element= driver.find_element(:tag_name,"select")
      select.select_by(:text, "Edam")
    • visibility

    • get text

    • get attribue

      driver.find_element(:id, 'Element').attribute('class')
  • Driver's operation

    • execute javascript

        driver.execute_script("return window.location.pathname")
    • wait for a specific element to show up

        # set the timeout to 10 seconds
        wait = => 10)
        # wait 10 seconds until the element appear
        wait.until { driver.find_element(:id => "foo") }
    • implicit waits

    An implicit wait is to tell WebDriver to poll the DOM for a certain amount of time when trying to find an element or elements if they are not immediately available

    	driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :firefox
    	# set the timeout for implicit waits as 10 seconds
    	driver.manage.timeouts.implicit_wait = 10
    	driver.get "http://somedomain/url_that_delays_loading"
    	element = driver.find_element(:id => "some-dynamic-element")
    • switch between frames

        # switch to a frame
        driver.switch_to.frame "some-frame" # name or id
        driver.switch_to.frame driver.find_element(:id, 'some-frame') # frame element
        # switch back to the main document
    • swich between windows

        driver.window_handles.each do |handle|
          driver.switch_to.window handle
    • handle javascript dialog

        # get the alert
        a = driver.switch_to.alert
        # operation on the alert
        if a.text == 'A value you are looking for'
  • Cookies

    • Delete cookies

        # You can delete cookies in 2 ways
        # By name
        # Or all of them

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@tit tit commented Nov 5, 2013

My way for Select.

def select options
    # :class, :class_name, :id, :link_text, :link, :partial_link_text, :name, :tag_name, :xpath
    # :xpath by default
    how = options[:how] || :xpath

    # example '/html/body/select'
    what = options[:what]

    # random select if nil
    value = options[:value]

    wait = options[:wait] ||
    driver = options[:driver]

    wait.until do      
        select = driver.find_element how, what
        select.find_elements :tag_name, 'option'

    select = driver.find_element how, what
    options = select.find_elements :tag_name, 'option'
    random = options.sample.attribute 'value'
    value = value || random

    options.each do |option| if value == random

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@The-canary48 The-canary48 commented Oct 14, 2015

I just want to put it simple


select the desired text in a paragraph using selenium


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@rameshdh2009 rameshdh2009 commented Oct 29, 2015

Create update

Selenium web driver using Java, How to click on create and update. Please help me .


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@michael47265 michael47265 commented Nov 16, 2015

Great cheatsheet! Just a couple of minor issues I came across:
driver.find_element(:id, 'BUTTON_ID).click #' missing after _ID

driver.find_element(:id, 'TextArea').send_keys [:contol, 'a'], :backspace #contol should be control


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@masterkrang masterkrang commented Oct 8, 2017

just wanted you to know i think you're cool


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@FernandoZnga FernandoZnga commented May 29, 2018

Hello, Do you know how to count the elements on a ul element? from a table I can use len but won't work on ul element


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@BrockTanium BrockTanium commented Aug 23, 2018

so great this is amaze. thanks much

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