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@kachayev
Last active January 9, 2023 14:58
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Dijkstra shortest path algorithm based on python heapq heap implementation
from collections import defaultdict
from heapq import *
def dijkstra(edges, f, t):
g = defaultdict(list)
for l,r,c in edges:
g[l].append((c,r))
q, seen, mins = [(0,f,())], set(), {f: 0}
while q:
(cost,v1,path) = heappop(q)
if v1 not in seen:
seen.add(v1)
path = (v1, path)
if v1 == t: return (cost, path)
for c, v2 in g.get(v1, ()):
if v2 in seen: continue
prev = mins.get(v2, None)
next = cost + c
if prev is None or next < prev:
mins[v2] = next
heappush(q, (next, v2, path))
return float("inf"), None
if __name__ == "__main__":
edges = [
("A", "B", 7),
("A", "D", 5),
("B", "C", 8),
("B", "D", 9),
("B", "E", 7),
("C", "E", 5),
("D", "E", 15),
("D", "F", 6),
("E", "F", 8),
("E", "G", 9),
("F", "G", 11)
]
print "=== Dijkstra ==="
print edges
print "A -> E:"
print dijkstra(edges, "A", "E")
print "F -> G:"
print dijkstra(edges, "F", "G")
@kevthanewversi
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this is brilliant. Thanks @kachayev

@u2takey
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u2takey commented Nov 13, 2018

seen is redundant

def dijkstra(edges, f, t):
    g = defaultdict(list)
    for l,r,c in edges:
        g[l].append((c,r))
  
    q, dist = [(0,f,())], {f: 0}
    while q:
        (cost, node, path) = heappop(q) 
        if cost > dist[node]: continue
        path += (node, )
        if node == t: 
            return (cost, path)
        for w, n in g.get(node, ()):
            oldc = dist.get(n, float("inf"))
            newc = cost + w
            if newc < oldc:
                dist[n] = newc # relax
                heappush(q, (newc, n, path))

    return float("inf")

or you can just use seen, ignore mins/dist

from collections import defaultdict
from heapq import *

def dijkstra(edges, f, t):
    g = defaultdict(list)
    for l,r,c in edges:
        g[l].append((c,r))

    q, seen = [(0,f,())], set()
    while q:
        (cost,v1,path) = heappop(q)
        if v1 not in seen:
            seen.add(v1)
            path = (v1, path)
            if v1 == t: return (cost, path)

            for c, v2 in g.get(v1, ()):
                if v2 in seen: continue
                next = cost + c
                heappush(q, (next, v2, path))

    return float("inf")

@lycutter
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Thanks for your code very much. But I want to make some expansion on this basis. The situation is that our map is a matrix, and there are more than one shortest path to reach the destination, if I want to find all the road not just the one, how to modify the code to achieve this? Thanks again.

@nolfonzo
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This is a slightly simpler approach, following the wikipedia definition closely:
http://rebrained.com/?p=392

import sys
def shortestpath(graph,start,end,visited=[],distances={},predecessors={}):
"""Find the shortest path btw start & end nodes in a graph"""

# detect if first time through, set current distance to zero
if not visited: distances[start]=0

# if we've found our end node, find the path to it, and return
if start==end:
    path=[]
    while end != None:
        path.append(end)
        end=predecessors.get(end,None)
    return distances[start], path[::-1]

# process neighbors as per algorithm, keep track of predecessors
for neighbor in graph[start]:
    if neighbor not in visited:
        neighbordist = distances.get(neighbor,sys.maxint)
        tentativedist = distances[start] + graph[start][neighbor]
        if tentativedist < neighbordist:
            distances[neighbor] = tentativedist
            predecessors[neighbor]=start

# neighbors processed, now mark the current node as visited 
visited.append(start)

# finds the closest unvisited node to the start 
unvisiteds = dict((k, distances.get(k,sys.maxint)) for k in graph if k not in visited)
closestnode = min(unvisiteds, key=unvisiteds.get)

# now take the closest node and recurse, making it current 
return shortestpath(graph,closestnode,end,visited,distances,predecessors)

if name == "main":
graph = {'a': {'w': 14, 'x': 7, 'y': 9},
'b': {'w': 9, 'z': 6},
'w': {'a': 14, 'b': 9, 'y': 2},
'x': {'a': 7, 'y': 10, 'z': 15},
'y': {'a': 9, 'w': 2, 'x': 10, 'z': 11},
'z': {'b': 6, 'x': 15, 'y': 11}}
print shortestpath(graph,'a','a')
print shortestpath(graph,'a','b')

"""
Expected Result:
    (0, ['a']) 
    (20, ['a', 'y', 'w', 'b'])
    """

@daidai21
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Flatten path version:

from collections import defaultdict
from heapq import *


def dijkstra(edges, f, t):
    g = defaultdict(list)
    for l, r, c in edges:
        g[l].append((c, r))

    q, seen, mins = [(0, f, [])], set(), {f: 0}
    while q:
        (cost, v1, path) = heappop(q)
        if v1 not in seen:
            seen.add(v1)
            path = [v1] + path
            if v1 == t:
                return (cost, path)

            for c, v2 in g.get(v1, ()):
                if v2 in seen:
                    continue
                prev = mins.get(v2, None)
                next = cost + c
                if prev is None or next < prev:
                    mins[v2] = next
                    heappush(q, (next, v2, path))

    return (float("inf"), [])


if __name__ == "__main__":
    edges = [
        ("A", "B", 7),
        ("A", "D", 5),
        ("B", "C", 8),
        ("B", "D", 9),
        ("B", "E", 7),
        ("C", "E", 5),
        ("D", "E", 15),
        ("D", "F", 6),
        ("E", "F", 8),
        ("E", "G", 9),
        ("F", "G", 11)
    ]

    print("=== Dijkstra ===")
    print(edges)
    print("A -> E: ", end="")
    print(dijkstra(edges, "A", "E"))
    print("F -> G: ", end="")
    print(dijkstra(edges, "F", "G"))
=== Dijkstra ===
[('A', 'B', 7), ('A', 'D', 5), ('B', 'C', 8), ('B', 'D', 9), ('B', 'E', 7), ('C', 'E', 5), ('D', 'E', 15), ('D', 'F', 6), ('E', 'F', 8), ('E', 'G', 9), ('F', 'G', 11)]
A -> E: (14, ['E', 'B', 'A'])
F -> G: (11, ['G', 'F'])

@ehborisov
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ehborisov commented Feb 28, 2020

Hi, I think I made a bit cleaner (subjectively :)) implementation in Python that uses RBTree as a priority queue with tests there

https://github.com/ehborisov/algorithms/blob/master/8.Graphs/dijkstra.py

@coldmanck
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coldmanck commented Mar 6, 2020

Unless I am missing something here, this is a BFS with a min-heap, not a Dijkstra's algorithm.

@JixinSiND Dijkstra's algorithm is essentially a weighted version of BFS.

@alelom
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alelom commented Jun 6, 2020

Just leaving a comment to let the author know that his code has been inappropriately taken and re-used as material for teaching at a University master in London. The authorship has been modified to report the lecturer's one instead.
https://www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/~ale/pwd/2019-20/pwd-8/src/pwd-ex-dijkstra+heap.py

@kachayev
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Author

kachayev commented Jun 8, 2020

@alelom Thanks a lot for letting me know, such a kind of you! This is not the first time this code was copy-pasted into lecture materials and/or projects codebases. Honestly, if it helped students to learn - I would be glad and proud. I care less about authorship or any sort of attribution. On the one hand, I wouldn't want to encourage disrespectful actions, on the other hand, I don't have reliable way to prevent this from happening. So, choosing between spread of knowledge or nurturing morality, I would always vote for the former. Thanks again for letting me know!

@alelom
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alelom commented Jun 9, 2020

I just care for what is right. If I were the lecturer, I'd quote the real author and the source – an action that does not diminish the teaching potential, and encourages sharing of good code lawfully.

@Andy9822
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Thank you so much for this gift, very clean and clever solution 😄

If anyone just wonders how to easily receive as output only the value of the solution remove the cost from the return at line 15:

if v1 == t: return cost
instead of
if v1 == t: return (cost, path)

@konmaz
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konmaz commented Nov 6, 2020

Nice and clean

@PoTseCheng
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Thank you very much for this beautiful algorithm.

@xdavidliu
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pretty sure this is not Dijkstra; you're doing heappush(q, (next, v2, path)) at the very end, but in True dijkstra it would need a call to "decrease_key", which in python is heap._siftdown

@chausen
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chausen commented Feb 27, 2022

@xdavidliu I was confused by this until I saw https://stackoverflow.com/a/31123108. I think Dijkstra's algorithm is a higher level concept, so either implementation is valid.

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