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How to use `git mergetool` to resolve conflicts in Vim / NeoVim

Table Of Content

Skip to the relevant sections if needed.

Concepts for resolving Git conflicts

For using mergetool in git, we need to understand the following terminology to understand what is being merged:

  • LOCAL - the head for the file(s) from the current branch on the machine that you are using.
  • REMOTE - the head for files(s) from a remote location that you are trying to merge into your LOCAL branch.
  • BASE - the common ancestor(s) of LOCAL and REMOTE.
  • MERGED - the tag / HEAD object after the merge - this is saved as a new commit.

Common mergetool from editors will display both LOCAL and REMOTE so you can decide which changes to keep. Please read this tutorial explaining the HEAD objects if you do not know what it is. It will help your understanding of Git tremendously.

Setting up different editors / tool for using git mergetool

We have to change the git config to set a default mergetool. In this example, we will use vimdiff:

$ git config merge.tool vimdiff      

We can also set the editor to display the common ancestor BASE while we examine what changes are in LOCAL and REMOTE with the following setting:

$ git config merge.conflictstyle diff3  

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Finding out what mergetool editors are supported

$ git mergetool --tool-help

And we list a few of them:

Command line mergetool editors

  • Emacs based diff tools: emerge, or Ediff
  • Vim based diff tool: vimdiff

GUI mergetool editors

  • gvimdiff - almost identical to vimdiff but uses the Linux GUI for Vim, please refer to vimdiff if you still use the keyboard commands for GVim.
  • kdiff3
  • meld
  • tortoisemerge

Or consult the community of your favorite editor to see how to do the equivalent operations for your editor.

Other useful mergetool settings

Do not prompt before launching the merge resolution tool

$ git config mergetool.prompt false

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mergetool simple code example

Ref1 for the example
Ref2

creating the git repo

$ mkdir galaxyZoo
$ cd galaxyZoo
$ git init
$ vim astrophy_obj.txt

Add some galaxy types into astrophy_obj.txt then save the file.

# content of astrophy_obj.txt
spiral
elliptical
bar 
irregular

save then commit the file.

$ git add astrophy_obj.txt
$ git commit -m 'Initial commit'
$ git branch astrophy_objects   # create a new branch
$ git checkout astrophy_objects # change to new branch
$ vim astrophy_obj.txt          # make changes to file 

Change bar to barred in the file.

$ git commit -am 'changed bar to barred'
$ git checkout master   # change back to master branch
$ vim astrophy_obj.txt  
# add the word `galaxy` to the end of each line using Vim REGEX 
# type `:%s/$/ galaxy/g` in Vim then press enter and save `:wq`

$ git commit -am 'added galaxy to each line'
# merge from the astrophy_objects branch to current branch, i.e. master
$ git merge astrophy_objects  

Then you will see some error messages:

Auto-merging astrophy_obj.txt
CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in astrophy_obj.txt
Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result.

We can bring up the mergetool:

$ git mergetool

Then it will bring up the different versions of the file in different Vim splits panels.

+--------------------------------+
| LOCAL  |     BASE     | REMOTE |
+--------------------------------+
|             MERGED             |
+--------------------------------+

The top left split panel is the LOCAL, top middle split is BASE and top right split is REMOTE. The bottom split refers to the MERGED version. You can find this info in the bottom bar of each split (I have put 3 yellow rectangles to highlight that info).

As you can see form the below image, my Vim has highlighted the differences in red for me. Vim mergetool image

Now if your terminal has any GUI capability and you have compiled Vim correctly with GUI support, you can use your mouse to click on the bottom split to edit it. Or if you are a Vim ninja, you can use the keyboard shortcut to move to different splits.

Ctrl w + h   # move to the split on the left 
Ctrl w + j   # move to the split below
Ctrl w + k   # move to the split on top
Ctrl w + l   # move to the split on the right

You can either incorporate the changes by manually editing the MERGED split, or use Vim shortcuts pull from one of the LOCAL, BASE ad REMOTE versions.

:diffg RE  # get from REMOTE
:diffg BA  # get from BASE
:diffg LO  # get from LOCAL

save the changes then quit with :wqa to close all the splits. Remember to commit the merge.

$ git commit -am 'merged from several branches'

Resolving conflict from a git pull

If you were trying to do a git pull when you ran into merge conflicts, follow all steps in the previous section for using the mergetool, then do:

$ git rebase –continue

This command will

Forward-port local commits to the updated upstream HEAD.

according to the documentation, meaning your local commits will be pushed to the upstream remote branch as a new forward commit that doesn't interfere with previous commits. Hooray now you can claim that you can collaborate with others with Git without messing up with your collaborators' commits.

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Other vimdiff keyboard shortcuts

]c - Jump to the next change.
[c - Jump to the previous change.

ref

Other great references and tutorials

Update (2020/09/20)

Thanks to @ekalosak's comment, I have fixed a mistake confusing the difference branches.

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@darxtrix
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darxtrix commented Apr 12, 2017

BASE - the common ancestor(s) of LOCAL and BASE .. should be "BASE - the common ancestor(s) of LOCAL and REMOTE" ?

@PegasusWang
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PegasusWang commented Jun 15, 2017

let mapleader=','
let g:mapleader=','

if &diff
    map <leader>1 :diffget LOCAL<CR>
    map <leader>2 :diffget BASE<CR>
    map <leader>3 :diffget REMOTE<CR>
endif

some useful maps

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ghost commented Oct 26, 2017

@darxtrix, I have the same question.

@simonmikkelsen
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simonmikkelsen commented Dec 7, 2017

Yes, @darxtrix is right: BASE is common of LOCAL and REMOTE.

@theholy7
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theholy7 commented Mar 1, 2018

Thanks for explaining this! 👍

@johnelliott
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johnelliott commented Dec 15, 2018

This was handy for me today. 👍

@johnelliott
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johnelliott commented Dec 15, 2018

let mapleader=','
let g:mapleader=','

if &diff
    map <leader>1 :diffget LOCAL<CR>
    map <leader>2 :diffget BASE<CR>
    map <leader>3 :diffget REMOTE<CR>
endif

some useful maps

In vim if you don't want to use maps, according to :help 'do' you can also type 3do to get from remote:

If you give a [count], it is used as the [bufspec] argument for ":diffget".

@antoine-morvan
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antoine-morvan commented May 14, 2019

Hi. Nice tutorial. I was just wondering if, in the Concepts for resolving Git conflicts, BASE is the common ancestor(s) of LOCAL and REMOTE instead of LOCAL and BASE ?

@SantoshNGitHub
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SantoshNGitHub commented Jul 14, 2019

It was very helpful. Thank you.

@xingyze
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xingyze commented Sep 7, 2019

really awesome!

@wimstefan
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wimstefan commented Jan 16, 2020

Good explanation. Very helpful! 🙏🏼

@sriharshay
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sriharshay commented Mar 19, 2020

Thanks for the mini tutorial, it clear now.

@ekalosak
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ekalosak commented Aug 21, 2020

Has anyone here had any success modifying the colors of the highlighting for more potential differences than add, delete, & change? It would be useful to have different shades (for example) indicating which of the 3 files are different. I'm not proud of spending a lot of time sifting through code where LOCAL and REMOTE are identical but both differ from BASE, I've gotta say.

@karenyyng
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Author

karenyyng commented Sep 20, 2020

Hi. Nice tutorial. I was just wondering if, in the Concepts for resolving Git conflicts, BASE is the common ancestor(s) of LOCAL and REMOTE instead of LOCAL and BASE ?

@ ekalosak I appreciate your comment. The sentence has now been fixed. Somehow I didn't get any notifications for the comments.

@haxpor
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haxpor commented Oct 17, 2020

I'm curious whey I didn't get BASE file shown? I only have 3 split window of LOCAL, RESULT, REMOTE. No BASE.

@FabienRCT
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FabienRCT commented Oct 23, 2020

Interesting, but I noted a mistake in the spelling of 'elliptical' written as 'ellipitcal'. I don't know if gists are editable though.
And in the following command "git checkout astrophy_objects # change to new branch"" the option -b is necessary to create the new branch.

@karenyyng
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Author

karenyyng commented Oct 24, 2020

Interesting, but I noted a mistake in the spelling of 'elliptical' written as 'ellipitcal'. I don't know if gists are editable though.
And in the following command "git checkout astrophy_objects # change to new branch"" the option -b is necessary to create the new branch.

@FabienRCT I indeed spelled elliptical wrong. Haha. I blame the sticky keyboard on my laptop.
That 's been fixed. Gist can be edited after the fact.

As for your second comment, if you follow the previous step for creating the branch of astrophy_objects, i.e. git branch astrophy_objects before switching to the new branch, you do not need to use the -b flag. Of course, you can choose to create a new branch and switch to it in one step instead of using the two steps that I wrote in my note. :)

@FabienRCT
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FabienRCT commented Oct 25, 2020

As for your second comment, if you follow the previous step for creating the branch of astrophy_objects, i.e. git branch astrophy_objects before switching to the new branch, you do not need to use the -b flag. Of course, you can choose to create a new branch and switch to it in one step instead of using the two steps that I wrote in my note

Well, look like I read it too fast and miss the 'git branch' line, however you corrected 'elliptical' wrong again as 'elliptcal'. ;)

@karenyyng
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Author

karenyyng commented Oct 25, 2020

As for your second comment, if you follow the previous step for creating the branch of astrophy_objects, i.e. git branch astrophy_objects before switching to the new branch, you do not need to use the -b flag. Of course, you can choose to create a new branch and switch to it in one step instead of using the two steps that I wrote in my note

Well, look like I read it too fast and miss the 'git branch' line, however you corrected 'elliptical' wrong again as 'elliptcal'. ;)

Thanks. Spell check is definitely sorely needed for Gists.

@Sysa
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Sysa commented Jun 11, 2021

use the :cquit to exit vimdiff properly and start the merge again in case of issues.

@ianchanning
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ianchanning commented Jan 30, 2022

This is an excellent tutorial. Fugitive is also a great tool for vimdiff and as per vim-fugitive #1306 you can use these commands for mergetool:

git config --global mergetool.fugitive.cmd 'nvim -f -c "Gvdiffsplit!" "$MERGED"'
git config --global merge.tool fugitive

See also this vimdiff mergetool stackoverflow answer about fugitive

@hacker65536
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hacker65536 commented Mar 25, 2022

for neovim
~/.gitconfig

[merge]
  tool = vimdiff
  conflictstyle = diff3

[mergetool]
  keepBackup = false
  prompt = false

[mergetool "vimdiff"]
  cmd = "nvim  -d $MERGED $LOCAL $BASE $REMOTE -c 'wincmd J | wincmd ='"
  

@changyuheng
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changyuheng commented Apr 11, 2022

+--------------------------------+
| LOCAL  |     BASE     | REMOTE |
+--------------------------------+
|             MERGED             |
+--------------------------------+

To make Neovim (nvim) display in the same layout as what's shown in the first post of this thread, the command should be:

nvim -d \"$LOCAL\" \"$MERGED\" \"$BASE\" \"$REMOTE\" -c \"wincmd w\" -c \"wincmd J\"

The minimum config that precisely targets the requirements should be:

For merge

Edit ~/.gitconfig directly or use the git CLI.

~/.gitconfig

[merge]
	tool = nvimdiff
[mergetool "nvimdiff"]
	cmd = nvim -d \"$LOCAL\" \"$MERGED\" \"$BASE\" \"$REMOTE\" -c \"wincmd w\" -c \"wincmd J\"

CLI

merge.tool = nvimdiff
mergetool.nvimdiff.cmd nvim -d "\$LOCAL" "\$REMOTE" "\$MERGED" -c "wincmd w" -c "wincmd J"

For diff

Edit ~/.gitconfig directly or use the git CLI.

~/.gitconfig

[diff]
	tool = nvimdiff
[difftool "nvimdiff"]
	cmd = nvim -d \"$LOCAL\" \"$REMOTE\" -c \"wincmd w\" -c \"wincmd L\"

CLI

git config --global diff.tool nvimdiff
git config --global difftool.nvimdiff.cmd 'nvim -d "$LOCAL" "$REMOTE" -c "wincmd w" -c "wincmd L"'

@ow0x
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ow0x commented Jun 19, 2022

This was pretty helpful! Thank you beyond words. ❤️

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