Theory of Building Caffe on OS X
Our goal is to run
python -c "import caffe" without crashing. For anyone who doesn't spend most of their time with build systems, getting to this point can be extremely difficult on OS X. Instead of providing a list of steps to follow, I'll try to explain why each step happens.
This page has OS X specific install instructions.
- You are using OS X 10.9+ (I'm using 10.10.5)
- You have downloaded Caffe (this was written against commit
- You have Xcode installed. Run
xcode-select --installto verify that the command line tools are installed.
- You have Homebrew installed.
The first dependency is downloading and installing CUDA and CuDNN. CUDA installs itself in
/Developer/NVIDIA/ and symlinks to
/usr/local/cuda/. I move the CuDNN 7.0 r3 folder
/Developer/NVIDIA/ and rename it to
CuDNN-7.0-r3. Usually this would be placed somewhere else, like
/usr/local/cudnn but I decided to do something similar to the CUDA installer.
Next, we will install Python with homebrew:
brew install python. Caffe recommends using Anaconda, but as far as I can tell it only helps by bundling a few modules (numpy, scipy, sklearn) that we can just as easily install with pip at the end.
When homebrew asks you to run
pip install --upgrade pip setuptools only run
pip install --upgrade pip. Otherwise you will have conflicts between a Python 2 and Python 3 installation.
Then we run the following as stated in the document, which will download and install a bunch of prerequisites for Caffe. The installation instructions assume you have numpy and protobuf installed. If not, first run:
brew install numpy protobuf
Then continue with the recommended steps:
brew install -vd snappy leveldb gflags glog szip lmdb brew tap homebrew/science brew install hdf5 opencv
boost and boost-python need to be installed from source. However version 1.58 is incompatible. To fix this we will modify the Homebrew formulas. Run
brew edit boost, replace the contents with this formula and
brew edit boost-python and use this formula. If you're having trouble with the default brew editor, run
export HOMEBREW_EDITOR='open -t' in Terminal before running
brew edit to change the editor. When you are done with this tutorial, replace the formula files with their original formulas by opening
/usr/local/Library/Formula/ and running
git checkout -- ..
For now, continue as recommended:
brew install --build-from-source --with-python -vd protobuf brew install --build-from-source -vd boost boost-python
At this point we need to make sure that two things are the case:
- All shared libraries that reference a C++ standard library are using
boost-pythonis linked against the Homebrew-installed Python, not the system python (because we will also link Caffe against Homebrew's Python, and because pip is using Homebrew's Python).
We can check this with
$ brew info boost ... $ otool -L /usr/local/Cellar/boost/1.57.0/lib/libboost_system.dylib # this is one of the libs that caffe links against ... /usr/lib/libc++.1.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 120.0.0) ... $ brew info boost-python ... $ otool -L /usr/local/Cellar/boost-python/1.57.0/lib/libboost_python.dylib ... /usr/local/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/Python (compatibility version 2.7.0, current version 2.7.0) ...
It looks like Boost is the right version (1.57.0) and it's linking against the right libraries. If it's not, you will get
Sigabrt and other strange errors from Python later when you try to
If we were running an older versions of OS X, it would use
libstdc++ by default for compiling Caffe, which means all the Homebrew formulas would have to be modified to match. Since we're using a newer version we don't have to do this.
Next, we adjust the
USE_CUDNN := 1because we want to use it.
- Edit the
PYTHON_INCLUDE. The example values use the system path for Python. We modify them to use the Homebrew path:
PYTHON_INCLUDE := /usr/local/lib/python2.7/site-packages/numpy/core/include/ /usr/local/Cellar/python/2.7.10/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/include/python2.7.
- For the same reason as the previous step, edit
PYTHON_LIB := /usr/local/Cellar/python/2.7.10/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/
WITH_PYTHON_LAYER := 1.
- Change the
INCLUDE_DIRSto add CuDNN:
INCLUDE_DIRS := $(PYTHON_INCLUDE) /usr/local/include /Developer/NVIDIA/CuDNN-7.0-r3/include
- Change the
LIBRARY_DIRSto add CuDNN:
LIBRARY_DIRS := $(PYTHON_LIB) /usr/local/lib /usr/lib /Developer/NVIDIA/CuDNN-7.0-r3/lib. It's very important that
$(PYTHON_LIB)comes first here, otherwise
makewill try to use the system python that it finds in
- Do not change
BLAS := atlas. By default this will cause Caffe to link with Accelerate, which is a fast BLAS implementation provided by Apple with OS X.
make all from the main Caffe directory. If you have a quad-core processor or better you can type
make all -j4 to speed up compilation a bit. Here are some errors you might run into with
- If it complains about a specific library, you could have missed one of the prerequisites. Check with
brew info x, where
xis the name of the library it's complaining about, that it's correctly installed.
- If it complains that something is
not found for architecture x86_64, this is
libc++mistmatch and you'll need to double-check all the prerequisites installed by Homebrew that they don't say
- If it complains about
pyconfig.h, make sure you are passing the right Python path to
PYTHON_INCLUDE. For example, open
/usr/local/Cellar/python/2.7.10/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/include/python2.7to see that
pyconfig.his in there. If not, you need to install Python with brew, or the path is different for your installation (e.g., a different version number like
make all finishes, run
Next, make sure some system variables are configured correctly for Python. Open your
~/.bash_profile in a text editor (e.g.,
nano ~/.bash_profile). If you're using TextEdit to edit
~/.bash_profile make sure smart quotes are turned off. Add these three lines:
export DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH='/Developer/NVIDIA/CuDNN-7.0-r3/lib':$DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH export DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH='/usr/local/cuda/lib/':$DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH export PYTHONPATH=~/Documents/caffe/python:$PYTHONPATH
The first two tell Python where to load the dylibs for CUDA and CuDNN from. The third line tells Python where to load pycaffe from. Customize the third line so it matches where you have caffe installed.
Now, if we try to test with
python -c "import caffe" we will get an error
No module named skimage.io. So we run
pip install scikit-image. If we test again,
No module named scipy so we
pip install scipy. Finally, testing one more time:
$ python >>> import caffe >>>
If you want to install Caffe and use it with the system Python, or even with Anaconda Python, this whole process might be easier (or slightly better documented), but I haven't tried that since I started with a Homebrew-installed version of Python. But if you use another version of Python, I recommend there is only one Python on your system, and you shoud leave all the values for Python paths with their defaults.