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@mbostock /.block
Last active Feb 14, 2017

Force-Directed Graph
license: gpl-3.0
height: 600

This simple force-directed graph shows character co-occurence in Les Misérables. A physical simulation of charged particles and springs places related characters in closer proximity, while unrelated characters are farther apart. Layout algorithm inspired by Tim Dwyer and Thomas Jakobsen. Data based on character coappearence in Victor Hugo's Les Misérables, compiled by Donald Knuth.

Compare this display to a force layout with curved links, a force layout with fisheye distortion and a matrix diagram.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<meta charset="utf-8">
.links line {
stroke: #999;
stroke-opacity: 0.6;
.nodes circle {
stroke: #fff;
stroke-width: 1.5px;
<svg width="960" height="600"></svg>
<script src=""></script>
var svg ="svg"),
width = +svg.attr("width"),
height = +svg.attr("height");
var color = d3.scaleOrdinal(d3.schemeCategory20);
var simulation = d3.forceSimulation()
.force("link", d3.forceLink().id(function(d) { return; }))
.force("charge", d3.forceManyBody())
.force("center", d3.forceCenter(width / 2, height / 2));
d3.json("miserables.json", function(error, graph) {
if (error) throw error;
var link = svg.append("g")
.attr("class", "links")
.attr("stroke-width", function(d) { return Math.sqrt(d.value); });
var node = svg.append("g")
.attr("class", "nodes")
.attr("r", 5)
.attr("fill", function(d) { return color(; })
.on("start", dragstarted)
.on("drag", dragged)
.on("end", dragended));
.text(function(d) { return; });
.on("tick", ticked);
function ticked() {
.attr("x1", function(d) { return d.source.x; })
.attr("y1", function(d) { return d.source.y; })
.attr("x2", function(d) { return; })
.attr("y2", function(d) { return; });
.attr("cx", function(d) { return d.x; })
.attr("cy", function(d) { return d.y; });
function dragstarted(d) {
if (! simulation.alphaTarget(0.3).restart();
d.fx = d.x;
d.fy = d.y;
function dragged(d) {
d.fx = d3.event.x;
d.fy = d3.event.y;
function dragended(d) {
if (! simulation.alphaTarget(0);
d.fx = null;
d.fy = null;
"nodes": [
{"id": "Myriel", "group": 1},
{"id": "Napoleon", "group": 1},
{"id": "Mlle.Baptistine", "group": 1},
{"id": "Mme.Magloire", "group": 1},
{"id": "CountessdeLo", "group": 1},
{"id": "Geborand", "group": 1},
{"id": "Champtercier", "group": 1},
{"id": "Cravatte", "group": 1},
{"id": "Count", "group": 1},
{"id": "OldMan", "group": 1},
{"id": "Labarre", "group": 2},
{"id": "Valjean", "group": 2},
{"id": "Marguerite", "group": 3},
{"id": "Mme.deR", "group": 2},
{"id": "Isabeau", "group": 2},
{"id": "Gervais", "group": 2},
{"id": "Tholomyes", "group": 3},
{"id": "Listolier", "group": 3},
{"id": "Fameuil", "group": 3},
{"id": "Blacheville", "group": 3},
{"id": "Favourite", "group": 3},
{"id": "Dahlia", "group": 3},
{"id": "Zephine", "group": 3},
{"id": "Fantine", "group": 3},
{"id": "Mme.Thenardier", "group": 4},
{"id": "Thenardier", "group": 4},
{"id": "Cosette", "group": 5},
{"id": "Javert", "group": 4},
{"id": "Fauchelevent", "group": 0},
{"id": "Bamatabois", "group": 2},
{"id": "Perpetue", "group": 3},
{"id": "Simplice", "group": 2},
{"id": "Scaufflaire", "group": 2},
{"id": "Woman1", "group": 2},
{"id": "Judge", "group": 2},
{"id": "Champmathieu", "group": 2},
{"id": "Brevet", "group": 2},
{"id": "Chenildieu", "group": 2},
{"id": "Cochepaille", "group": 2},
{"id": "Pontmercy", "group": 4},
{"id": "Boulatruelle", "group": 6},
{"id": "Eponine", "group": 4},
{"id": "Anzelma", "group": 4},
{"id": "Woman2", "group": 5},
{"id": "MotherInnocent", "group": 0},
{"id": "Gribier", "group": 0},
{"id": "Jondrette", "group": 7},
{"id": "Mme.Burgon", "group": 7},
{"id": "Gavroche", "group": 8},
{"id": "Gillenormand", "group": 5},
{"id": "Magnon", "group": 5},
{"id": "Mlle.Gillenormand", "group": 5},
{"id": "Mme.Pontmercy", "group": 5},
{"id": "Mlle.Vaubois", "group": 5},
{"id": "Lt.Gillenormand", "group": 5},
{"id": "Marius", "group": 8},
{"id": "BaronessT", "group": 5},
{"id": "Mabeuf", "group": 8},
{"id": "Enjolras", "group": 8},
{"id": "Combeferre", "group": 8},
{"id": "Prouvaire", "group": 8},
{"id": "Feuilly", "group": 8},
{"id": "Courfeyrac", "group": 8},
{"id": "Bahorel", "group": 8},
{"id": "Bossuet", "group": 8},
{"id": "Joly", "group": 8},
{"id": "Grantaire", "group": 8},
{"id": "MotherPlutarch", "group": 9},
{"id": "Gueulemer", "group": 4},
{"id": "Babet", "group": 4},
{"id": "Claquesous", "group": 4},
{"id": "Montparnasse", "group": 4},
{"id": "Toussaint", "group": 5},
{"id": "Child1", "group": 10},
{"id": "Child2", "group": 10},
{"id": "Brujon", "group": 4},
{"id": "Mme.Hucheloup", "group": 8}
"links": [
{"source": "Napoleon", "target": "Myriel", "value": 1},
{"source": "Mlle.Baptistine", "target": "Myriel", "value": 8},
{"source": "Mme.Magloire", "target": "Myriel", "value": 10},
{"source": "Mme.Magloire", "target": "Mlle.Baptistine", "value": 6},
{"source": "CountessdeLo", "target": "Myriel", "value": 1},
{"source": "Geborand", "target": "Myriel", "value": 1},
{"source": "Champtercier", "target": "Myriel", "value": 1},
{"source": "Cravatte", "target": "Myriel", "value": 1},
{"source": "Count", "target": "Myriel", "value": 2},
{"source": "OldMan", "target": "Myriel", "value": 1},
{"source": "Valjean", "target": "Labarre", "value": 1},
{"source": "Valjean", "target": "Mme.Magloire", "value": 3},
{"source": "Valjean", "target": "Mlle.Baptistine", "value": 3},
{"source": "Valjean", "target": "Myriel", "value": 5},
{"source": "Marguerite", "target": "Valjean", "value": 1},
{"source": "Mme.deR", "target": "Valjean", "value": 1},
{"source": "Isabeau", "target": "Valjean", "value": 1},
{"source": "Gervais", "target": "Valjean", "value": 1},
{"source": "Listolier", "target": "Tholomyes", "value": 4},
{"source": "Fameuil", "target": "Tholomyes", "value": 4},
{"source": "Fameuil", "target": "Listolier", "value": 4},
{"source": "Blacheville", "target": "Tholomyes", "value": 4},
{"source": "Blacheville", "target": "Listolier", "value": 4},
{"source": "Blacheville", "target": "Fameuil", "value": 4},
{"source": "Favourite", "target": "Tholomyes", "value": 3},
{"source": "Favourite", "target": "Listolier", "value": 3},
{"source": "Favourite", "target": "Fameuil", "value": 3},
{"source": "Favourite", "target": "Blacheville", "value": 4},
{"source": "Dahlia", "target": "Tholomyes", "value": 3},
{"source": "Dahlia", "target": "Listolier", "value": 3},
{"source": "Dahlia", "target": "Fameuil", "value": 3},
{"source": "Dahlia", "target": "Blacheville", "value": 3},
{"source": "Dahlia", "target": "Favourite", "value": 5},
{"source": "Zephine", "target": "Tholomyes", "value": 3},
{"source": "Zephine", "target": "Listolier", "value": 3},
{"source": "Zephine", "target": "Fameuil", "value": 3},
{"source": "Zephine", "target": "Blacheville", "value": 3},
{"source": "Zephine", "target": "Favourite", "value": 4},
{"source": "Zephine", "target": "Dahlia", "value": 4},
{"source": "Fantine", "target": "Tholomyes", "value": 3},
{"source": "Fantine", "target": "Listolier", "value": 3},
{"source": "Fantine", "target": "Fameuil", "value": 3},
{"source": "Fantine", "target": "Blacheville", "value": 3},
{"source": "Fantine", "target": "Favourite", "value": 4},
{"source": "Fantine", "target": "Dahlia", "value": 4},
{"source": "Fantine", "target": "Zephine", "value": 4},
{"source": "Fantine", "target": "Marguerite", "value": 2},
{"source": "Fantine", "target": "Valjean", "value": 9},
{"source": "Mme.Thenardier", "target": "Fantine", "value": 2},
{"source": "Mme.Thenardier", "target": "Valjean", "value": 7},
{"source": "Thenardier", "target": "Mme.Thenardier", "value": 13},
{"source": "Thenardier", "target": "Fantine", "value": 1},
{"source": "Thenardier", "target": "Valjean", "value": 12},
{"source": "Cosette", "target": "Mme.Thenardier", "value": 4},
{"source": "Cosette", "target": "Valjean", "value": 31},
{"source": "Cosette", "target": "Tholomyes", "value": 1},
{"source": "Cosette", "target": "Thenardier", "value": 1},
{"source": "Javert", "target": "Valjean", "value": 17},
{"source": "Javert", "target": "Fantine", "value": 5},
{"source": "Javert", "target": "Thenardier", "value": 5},
{"source": "Javert", "target": "Mme.Thenardier", "value": 1},
{"source": "Javert", "target": "Cosette", "value": 1},
{"source": "Fauchelevent", "target": "Valjean", "value": 8},
{"source": "Fauchelevent", "target": "Javert", "value": 1},
{"source": "Bamatabois", "target": "Fantine", "value": 1},
{"source": "Bamatabois", "target": "Javert", "value": 1},
{"source": "Bamatabois", "target": "Valjean", "value": 2},
{"source": "Perpetue", "target": "Fantine", "value": 1},
{"source": "Simplice", "target": "Perpetue", "value": 2},
{"source": "Simplice", "target": "Valjean", "value": 3},
{"source": "Simplice", "target": "Fantine", "value": 2},
{"source": "Simplice", "target": "Javert", "value": 1},
{"source": "Scaufflaire", "target": "Valjean", "value": 1},
{"source": "Woman1", "target": "Valjean", "value": 2},
{"source": "Woman1", "target": "Javert", "value": 1},
{"source": "Judge", "target": "Valjean", "value": 3},
{"source": "Judge", "target": "Bamatabois", "value": 2},
{"source": "Champmathieu", "target": "Valjean", "value": 3},
{"source": "Champmathieu", "target": "Judge", "value": 3},
{"source": "Champmathieu", "target": "Bamatabois", "value": 2},
{"source": "Brevet", "target": "Judge", "value": 2},
{"source": "Brevet", "target": "Champmathieu", "value": 2},
{"source": "Brevet", "target": "Valjean", "value": 2},
{"source": "Brevet", "target": "Bamatabois", "value": 1},
{"source": "Chenildieu", "target": "Judge", "value": 2},
{"source": "Chenildieu", "target": "Champmathieu", "value": 2},
{"source": "Chenildieu", "target": "Brevet", "value": 2},
{"source": "Chenildieu", "target": "Valjean", "value": 2},
{"source": "Chenildieu", "target": "Bamatabois", "value": 1},
{"source": "Cochepaille", "target": "Judge", "value": 2},
{"source": "Cochepaille", "target": "Champmathieu", "value": 2},
{"source": "Cochepaille", "target": "Brevet", "value": 2},
{"source": "Cochepaille", "target": "Chenildieu", "value": 2},
{"source": "Cochepaille", "target": "Valjean", "value": 2},
{"source": "Cochepaille", "target": "Bamatabois", "value": 1},
{"source": "Pontmercy", "target": "Thenardier", "value": 1},
{"source": "Boulatruelle", "target": "Thenardier", "value": 1},
{"source": "Eponine", "target": "Mme.Thenardier", "value": 2},
{"source": "Eponine", "target": "Thenardier", "value": 3},
{"source": "Anzelma", "target": "Eponine", "value": 2},
{"source": "Anzelma", "target": "Thenardier", "value": 2},
{"source": "Anzelma", "target": "Mme.Thenardier", "value": 1},
{"source": "Woman2", "target": "Valjean", "value": 3},
{"source": "Woman2", "target": "Cosette", "value": 1},
{"source": "Woman2", "target": "Javert", "value": 1},
{"source": "MotherInnocent", "target": "Fauchelevent", "value": 3},
{"source": "MotherInnocent", "target": "Valjean", "value": 1},
{"source": "Gribier", "target": "Fauchelevent", "value": 2},
{"source": "Mme.Burgon", "target": "Jondrette", "value": 1},
{"source": "Gavroche", "target": "Mme.Burgon", "value": 2},
{"source": "Gavroche", "target": "Thenardier", "value": 1},
{"source": "Gavroche", "target": "Javert", "value": 1},
{"source": "Gavroche", "target": "Valjean", "value": 1},
{"source": "Gillenormand", "target": "Cosette", "value": 3},
{"source": "Gillenormand", "target": "Valjean", "value": 2},
{"source": "Magnon", "target": "Gillenormand", "value": 1},
{"source": "Magnon", "target": "Mme.Thenardier", "value": 1},
{"source": "Mlle.Gillenormand", "target": "Gillenormand", "value": 9},
{"source": "Mlle.Gillenormand", "target": "Cosette", "value": 2},
{"source": "Mlle.Gillenormand", "target": "Valjean", "value": 2},
{"source": "Mme.Pontmercy", "target": "Mlle.Gillenormand", "value": 1},
{"source": "Mme.Pontmercy", "target": "Pontmercy", "value": 1},
{"source": "Mlle.Vaubois", "target": "Mlle.Gillenormand", "value": 1},
{"source": "Lt.Gillenormand", "target": "Mlle.Gillenormand", "value": 2},
{"source": "Lt.Gillenormand", "target": "Gillenormand", "value": 1},
{"source": "Lt.Gillenormand", "target": "Cosette", "value": 1},
{"source": "Marius", "target": "Mlle.Gillenormand", "value": 6},
{"source": "Marius", "target": "Gillenormand", "value": 12},
{"source": "Marius", "target": "Pontmercy", "value": 1},
{"source": "Marius", "target": "Lt.Gillenormand", "value": 1},
{"source": "Marius", "target": "Cosette", "value": 21},
{"source": "Marius", "target": "Valjean", "value": 19},
{"source": "Marius", "target": "Tholomyes", "value": 1},
{"source": "Marius", "target": "Thenardier", "value": 2},
{"source": "Marius", "target": "Eponine", "value": 5},
{"source": "Marius", "target": "Gavroche", "value": 4},
{"source": "BaronessT", "target": "Gillenormand", "value": 1},
{"source": "BaronessT", "target": "Marius", "value": 1},
{"source": "Mabeuf", "target": "Marius", "value": 1},
{"source": "Mabeuf", "target": "Eponine", "value": 1},
{"source": "Mabeuf", "target": "Gavroche", "value": 1},
{"source": "Enjolras", "target": "Marius", "value": 7},
{"source": "Enjolras", "target": "Gavroche", "value": 7},
{"source": "Enjolras", "target": "Javert", "value": 6},
{"source": "Enjolras", "target": "Mabeuf", "value": 1},
{"source": "Enjolras", "target": "Valjean", "value": 4},
{"source": "Combeferre", "target": "Enjolras", "value": 15},
{"source": "Combeferre", "target": "Marius", "value": 5},
{"source": "Combeferre", "target": "Gavroche", "value": 6},
{"source": "Combeferre", "target": "Mabeuf", "value": 2},
{"source": "Prouvaire", "target": "Gavroche", "value": 1},
{"source": "Prouvaire", "target": "Enjolras", "value": 4},
{"source": "Prouvaire", "target": "Combeferre", "value": 2},
{"source": "Feuilly", "target": "Gavroche", "value": 2},
{"source": "Feuilly", "target": "Enjolras", "value": 6},
{"source": "Feuilly", "target": "Prouvaire", "value": 2},
{"source": "Feuilly", "target": "Combeferre", "value": 5},
{"source": "Feuilly", "target": "Mabeuf", "value": 1},
{"source": "Feuilly", "target": "Marius", "value": 1},
{"source": "Courfeyrac", "target": "Marius", "value": 9},
{"source": "Courfeyrac", "target": "Enjolras", "value": 17},
{"source": "Courfeyrac", "target": "Combeferre", "value": 13},
{"source": "Courfeyrac", "target": "Gavroche", "value": 7},
{"source": "Courfeyrac", "target": "Mabeuf", "value": 2},
{"source": "Courfeyrac", "target": "Eponine", "value": 1},
{"source": "Courfeyrac", "target": "Feuilly", "value": 6},
{"source": "Courfeyrac", "target": "Prouvaire", "value": 3},
{"source": "Bahorel", "target": "Combeferre", "value": 5},
{"source": "Bahorel", "target": "Gavroche", "value": 5},
{"source": "Bahorel", "target": "Courfeyrac", "value": 6},
{"source": "Bahorel", "target": "Mabeuf", "value": 2},
{"source": "Bahorel", "target": "Enjolras", "value": 4},
{"source": "Bahorel", "target": "Feuilly", "value": 3},
{"source": "Bahorel", "target": "Prouvaire", "value": 2},
{"source": "Bahorel", "target": "Marius", "value": 1},
{"source": "Bossuet", "target": "Marius", "value": 5},
{"source": "Bossuet", "target": "Courfeyrac", "value": 12},
{"source": "Bossuet", "target": "Gavroche", "value": 5},
{"source": "Bossuet", "target": "Bahorel", "value": 4},
{"source": "Bossuet", "target": "Enjolras", "value": 10},
{"source": "Bossuet", "target": "Feuilly", "value": 6},
{"source": "Bossuet", "target": "Prouvaire", "value": 2},
{"source": "Bossuet", "target": "Combeferre", "value": 9},
{"source": "Bossuet", "target": "Mabeuf", "value": 1},
{"source": "Bossuet", "target": "Valjean", "value": 1},
{"source": "Joly", "target": "Bahorel", "value": 5},
{"source": "Joly", "target": "Bossuet", "value": 7},
{"source": "Joly", "target": "Gavroche", "value": 3},
{"source": "Joly", "target": "Courfeyrac", "value": 5},
{"source": "Joly", "target": "Enjolras", "value": 5},
{"source": "Joly", "target": "Feuilly", "value": 5},
{"source": "Joly", "target": "Prouvaire", "value": 2},
{"source": "Joly", "target": "Combeferre", "value": 5},
{"source": "Joly", "target": "Mabeuf", "value": 1},
{"source": "Joly", "target": "Marius", "value": 2},
{"source": "Grantaire", "target": "Bossuet", "value": 3},
{"source": "Grantaire", "target": "Enjolras", "value": 3},
{"source": "Grantaire", "target": "Combeferre", "value": 1},
{"source": "Grantaire", "target": "Courfeyrac", "value": 2},
{"source": "Grantaire", "target": "Joly", "value": 2},
{"source": "Grantaire", "target": "Gavroche", "value": 1},
{"source": "Grantaire", "target": "Bahorel", "value": 1},
{"source": "Grantaire", "target": "Feuilly", "value": 1},
{"source": "Grantaire", "target": "Prouvaire", "value": 1},
{"source": "MotherPlutarch", "target": "Mabeuf", "value": 3},
{"source": "Gueulemer", "target": "Thenardier", "value": 5},
{"source": "Gueulemer", "target": "Valjean", "value": 1},
{"source": "Gueulemer", "target": "Mme.Thenardier", "value": 1},
{"source": "Gueulemer", "target": "Javert", "value": 1},
{"source": "Gueulemer", "target": "Gavroche", "value": 1},
{"source": "Gueulemer", "target": "Eponine", "value": 1},
{"source": "Babet", "target": "Thenardier", "value": 6},
{"source": "Babet", "target": "Gueulemer", "value": 6},
{"source": "Babet", "target": "Valjean", "value": 1},
{"source": "Babet", "target": "Mme.Thenardier", "value": 1},
{"source": "Babet", "target": "Javert", "value": 2},
{"source": "Babet", "target": "Gavroche", "value": 1},
{"source": "Babet", "target": "Eponine", "value": 1},
{"source": "Claquesous", "target": "Thenardier", "value": 4},
{"source": "Claquesous", "target": "Babet", "value": 4},
{"source": "Claquesous", "target": "Gueulemer", "value": 4},
{"source": "Claquesous", "target": "Valjean", "value": 1},
{"source": "Claquesous", "target": "Mme.Thenardier", "value": 1},
{"source": "Claquesous", "target": "Javert", "value": 1},
{"source": "Claquesous", "target": "Eponine", "value": 1},
{"source": "Claquesous", "target": "Enjolras", "value": 1},
{"source": "Montparnasse", "target": "Javert", "value": 1},
{"source": "Montparnasse", "target": "Babet", "value": 2},
{"source": "Montparnasse", "target": "Gueulemer", "value": 2},
{"source": "Montparnasse", "target": "Claquesous", "value": 2},
{"source": "Montparnasse", "target": "Valjean", "value": 1},
{"source": "Montparnasse", "target": "Gavroche", "value": 1},
{"source": "Montparnasse", "target": "Eponine", "value": 1},
{"source": "Montparnasse", "target": "Thenardier", "value": 1},
{"source": "Toussaint", "target": "Cosette", "value": 2},
{"source": "Toussaint", "target": "Javert", "value": 1},
{"source": "Toussaint", "target": "Valjean", "value": 1},
{"source": "Child1", "target": "Gavroche", "value": 2},
{"source": "Child2", "target": "Gavroche", "value": 2},
{"source": "Child2", "target": "Child1", "value": 3},
{"source": "Brujon", "target": "Babet", "value": 3},
{"source": "Brujon", "target": "Gueulemer", "value": 3},
{"source": "Brujon", "target": "Thenardier", "value": 3},
{"source": "Brujon", "target": "Gavroche", "value": 1},
{"source": "Brujon", "target": "Eponine", "value": 1},
{"source": "Brujon", "target": "Claquesous", "value": 1},
{"source": "Brujon", "target": "Montparnasse", "value": 1},
{"source": "Mme.Hucheloup", "target": "Bossuet", "value": 1},
{"source": "Mme.Hucheloup", "target": "Joly", "value": 1},
{"source": "Mme.Hucheloup", "target": "Grantaire", "value": 1},
{"source": "Mme.Hucheloup", "target": "Bahorel", "value": 1},
{"source": "Mme.Hucheloup", "target": "Courfeyrac", "value": 1},
{"source": "Mme.Hucheloup", "target": "Gavroche", "value": 1},
{"source": "Mme.Hucheloup", "target": "Enjolras", "value": 1}

Hello. I am new to d3 (thank you-it's amazing!), and am using your examples to learn. I have re-created this graph, but am trying to get the names to show up as labels on the graph. i thought that the code:

.text(function(d) { return; });

would append the name of each row to the node, but it doesn't seem to. If this code is not to append the title then what is it's purpose? also, if this code isn't meant to add the label to each node, can you point me in the direction of some code that would do the trick?

thank you!


Hello and thank you very much for your example! I am trying to do the same kind of graph to put it on a website and let the people interact with the information. I guess that you got the original information from a Neo4j database, is that right? In that case, the question is where did you get the json file from? Is it necessary?

Thank you!


idurkan commented May 30, 2013

The JSON data is derived from jean.dat in

It's part of the Stanford GraphBase discussed here:


Hi guys,

I'm reusing the code and have not been able to successfully modify it to implement this requirement: "The 'clicked' node in the graph moves to the center of the force-directed graph and the graph is re-drawn!"

Can you help me point to some example that does this. I'd be very thankful.

Regds, Kuldeep.



I'm making use of its graph model. However, I must now define specific distances for each node (not just weight stroke-line).

The "linkDistance" make for all lines.
how can I modify it so that the distance is always the base value of the stroke line?

I tried to modify the code, but it is obscured, making it difficult to understand.

Thank you.

A-aadi commented Aug 2, 2016

im novice in d3. can someone tell me how you define node , group , value and target.


Another example of a force-directed layout graph but where the nodes are limited to annuli of different sizes based on their data. I used the term concentric circles as it was a little clearer:

Hope this might interest a few!


The entire code breaks when there is no group specified for the data, even when one sets one color for all nodes. I can't get my head around where this requirements comes from. Can someone help?


You have to change node.append("title") to node.append("svg:title") in order to correctly show titles.

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