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RGB, HSV, and HSL color conversion algorithms in JavaScript
/**
* Converts an RGB color value to HSL. Conversion formula
* adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HSL_color_space.
* Assumes r, g, and b are contained in the set [0, 255] and
* returns h, s, and l in the set [0, 1].
*
* @param Number r The red color value
* @param Number g The green color value
* @param Number b The blue color value
* @return Array The HSL representation
*/
function rgbToHsl(r, g, b) {
r /= 255, g /= 255, b /= 255;
var max = Math.max(r, g, b), min = Math.min(r, g, b);
var h, s, l = (max + min) / 2;
if (max == min) {
h = s = 0; // achromatic
} else {
var d = max - min;
s = l > 0.5 ? d / (2 - max - min) : d / (max + min);
switch (max) {
case r: h = (g - b) / d + (g < b ? 6 : 0); break;
case g: h = (b - r) / d + 2; break;
case b: h = (r - g) / d + 4; break;
}
h /= 6;
}
return [ h, s, l ];
}
/**
* Converts an HSL color value to RGB. Conversion formula
* adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HSL_color_space.
* Assumes h, s, and l are contained in the set [0, 1] and
* returns r, g, and b in the set [0, 255].
*
* @param Number h The hue
* @param Number s The saturation
* @param Number l The lightness
* @return Array The RGB representation
*/
function hslToRgb(h, s, l) {
var r, g, b;
if (s == 0) {
r = g = b = l; // achromatic
} else {
function hue2rgb(p, q, t) {
if (t < 0) t += 1;
if (t > 1) t -= 1;
if (t < 1/6) return p + (q - p) * 6 * t;
if (t < 1/2) return q;
if (t < 2/3) return p + (q - p) * (2/3 - t) * 6;
return p;
}
var q = l < 0.5 ? l * (1 + s) : l + s - l * s;
var p = 2 * l - q;
r = hue2rgb(p, q, h + 1/3);
g = hue2rgb(p, q, h);
b = hue2rgb(p, q, h - 1/3);
}
return [ r * 255, g * 255, b * 255 ];
}
/**
* Converts an RGB color value to HSV. Conversion formula
* adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HSV_color_space.
* Assumes r, g, and b are contained in the set [0, 255] and
* returns h, s, and v in the set [0, 1].
*
* @param Number r The red color value
* @param Number g The green color value
* @param Number b The blue color value
* @return Array The HSV representation
*/
function rgbToHsv(r, g, b) {
r /= 255, g /= 255, b /= 255;
var max = Math.max(r, g, b), min = Math.min(r, g, b);
var h, s, v = max;
var d = max - min;
s = max == 0 ? 0 : d / max;
if (max == min) {
h = 0; // achromatic
} else {
switch (max) {
case r: h = (g - b) / d + (g < b ? 6 : 0); break;
case g: h = (b - r) / d + 2; break;
case b: h = (r - g) / d + 4; break;
}
h /= 6;
}
return [ h, s, v ];
}
/**
* Converts an HSV color value to RGB. Conversion formula
* adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HSV_color_space.
* Assumes h, s, and v are contained in the set [0, 1] and
* returns r, g, and b in the set [0, 255].
*
* @param Number h The hue
* @param Number s The saturation
* @param Number v The value
* @return Array The RGB representation
*/
function hsvToRgb(h, s, v) {
var r, g, b;
var i = Math.floor(h * 6);
var f = h * 6 - i;
var p = v * (1 - s);
var q = v * (1 - f * s);
var t = v * (1 - (1 - f) * s);
switch (i % 6) {
case 0: r = v, g = t, b = p; break;
case 1: r = q, g = v, b = p; break;
case 2: r = p, g = v, b = t; break;
case 3: r = p, g = q, b = v; break;
case 4: r = t, g = p, b = v; break;
case 5: r = v, g = p, b = q; break;
}
return [ r * 255, g * 255, b * 255 ];
}
@andersborgabiro
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andersborgabiro commented Feb 20, 2018

Would you guys consider HSL or HSV better for conversion to humanly sensible text via conditions (a la pale dark blue etc) rather than choosing specific color names via proximity comparisons? I currently do both, but most exact color names are incomprehensible to the intended audience, so I need something simpler ("what the heck is mauve?" etc). In the first case currently via HSL, with ranges for each attribute + some special conditions for black, white, gray etc, currently lacking distinction of brown, pink etc common color names.

@lsbyerley
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lsbyerley commented Apr 19, 2018

Someone correct me if I'm wrong, but I believe hsvToRgb() is incorrect. Example:

hsvToRgb( .074, 1, 1 ) = r:255, g:113, b:0 when it should be r:195, g:255, b:0

@PhoneixS
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PhoneixS commented May 11, 2018

About license, the docs tell that comes from an adaption of algorithms in Wikipedia. The texts under Wikipedia are covered by Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 which give you the right to distribute adaptations only under the same license so this code must be under it too.

But, yes, better if the author adds it clearly.

@vahidk
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vahidk commented Sep 19, 2018

This doesn't really work. I just implemented the wikipedia algorithm as is and it works:
https://gist.github.com/vahidk/05184faf3d92a0aa1b46aeaa93b07786

@stephencweiss
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stephencweiss commented Dec 18, 2018

@isbyerley, came here to say the same thing. I think there's a mistake in the hsvToRgb. Here's my version:

function rgbFromHSV(h,s,v) {
  /**
   * I: An array of three elements hue (h) ∈ [0, 360], and saturation (s) and value (v) which are ∈ [0, 1]
   * O: An array of red (r), green (g), blue (b), all ∈ [0, 255]
   * Derived from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HSL_and_HSV
   * This stackexchange was the clearest derivation I found to reimplement https://cs.stackexchange.com/questions/64549/convert-hsv-to-rgb-colors
   */

  hprime = h / 60;
  const c = v * s;
  const x = c * (1 - Math.abs(hprime % 2 - 1)); 
  const m = v - c;
  let r, g, b;
  if (!hprime) {r = 0; g = 0; b = 0; }
  if (hprime >= 0 && hprime < 1) { r = c; g = x; b = 0}
  if (hprime >= 1 && hprime < 2) { r = x; g = c; b = 0}
  if (hprime >= 2 && hprime < 3) { r = 0; g = c; b = x}
  if (hprime >= 3 && hprime < 4) { r = 0; g = x; b = c}
  if (hprime >= 4 && hprime < 5) { r = x; g = 0; b = c}
  if (hprime >= 5 && hprime < 6) { r = c; g = 0; b = x}
  
  r = Math.round( (r + m)* 255);
  g = Math.round( (g + m)* 255);
  b = Math.round( (b + m)* 255);

  return [r, g, b]
}

@david-tabor
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david-tabor commented Mar 15, 2019

+1, used this for a coding bootcamp assignment, with attribution

@ashleedawg
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ashleedawg commented Mar 22, 2020

This minified variation takes integer r,g,b values (0 to 255) and returns an object of integers (°,%,%) like {h:360, s:100, l:50} :

function rgbToHsl(a,r,e){a/=255,r/=255,e/=255;var t,h,n=Math.max(a,r,e),s=Math.min(a,r,e),c=(n+s)/2;if(n==s)t=h=0;else{var o=n-s;switch(h=.5<c?o/(2-n-s):o/(n+s),n){case a:t=(r-e)/o+(r<e?6:0);break;case r:t=(e-a)/o+2;break;case e:t=(a-r)/o+4}t/=6}return{h:Math.round(360*t),s:Math.round(100*h),l:Math.round(100*c)}}

@gntlechaos
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gntlechaos commented Apr 23, 2020

If you have been looking for a variation that converts RGB to HSV with the hue ranging from 0 to 360 instead of 0 to 1, and the saturation and value ranging from 0 to 100, I have adapted this function, with this range re-mapping algorithm.

function mapMinMax(value,oldMin,oldMax,newMin, newMax) {
  return  (newMax-newMin)*(value-oldMin)/(oldMax-oldMin)+newMin;
}

function rgbToHsv(r, g, b) {
    r /= 255, g /= 255, b /= 255;

    var max = Math.max(r, g, b),
        min = Math.min(r, g, b);
    var h, s, v = max;

    var d = max - min;
    s = max == 0 ? 0 : d / max;
    if (max == min) {
        h = 0; // achromatic
    } else {
        switch (max) {
            case r:
                h = (g - b) / d + (g < b ? 6 : 0);
                break;
            case g:
                h = (b - r) / d + 2;
                break;
            case b:
                h = (r - g) / d + 4;
                break;
        }

        h /= 6;
    }

    h = mapMinMax(h,0,1,0,360);
    return [h, s * 100, v * 100];
}

@kigiri
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kigiri commented Jun 18, 2020

working with css string here did:

const _rgbToHsl = rgbStr => {
  const [r, g, b] = rgbStr.slice(4, -1).split(',').map(Number)
  const max = Math.max(r, g, b)
  const min = Math.min(r, g, b)
  const l = Math.floor((max + min) / ((0xff * 2) / 100))

  if (max === min) return [0, 0, l]
  const d = max - min
  const s = Math.floor((d / (l > 50 ? 0xff * 2 - max - min : max + min)) * 100)

  if (max === r) return [Math.floor(((g - b) / d + (g < b && 6)) * 60), s, l]
  return max === g
    ? [Math.floor(((b - r) / d + 2) * 60), s, l]
    : [Math.floor(((r - g) / d + 4) * 60), s, l]
}

It takes a css rgb string and returns parts in a css ready scale.

I got results similar to chrome conversion.

@avisek
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avisek commented May 21, 2022

RGB, HSL, XYZ, LAB, LCH color conversion algorithms (ES6 Modules)
https://gist.github.com/avisek/eadfbe7a7a169b1001a2d3affc21052e

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