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requestAnimationFrame polyfill
// requestAnimationFrame polyfill by Erik Möller. fixes from Paul Irish and Tino Zijdel
// MIT license
(function() {
var lastTime = 0;
var vendors = ['ms', 'moz', 'webkit', 'o'];
for(var x = 0; x < vendors.length && !window.requestAnimationFrame; ++x) {
window.requestAnimationFrame = window[vendors[x]+'RequestAnimationFrame'];
window.cancelAnimationFrame = window[vendors[x]+'CancelAnimationFrame']
|| window[vendors[x]+'CancelRequestAnimationFrame'];
if (!window.requestAnimationFrame)
window.requestAnimationFrame = function(callback, element) {
var currTime = new Date().getTime();
var timeToCall = Math.max(0, 16 - (currTime - lastTime));
var id = window.setTimeout(function() { callback(currTime + timeToCall); },
lastTime = currTime + timeToCall;
return id;
if (!window.cancelAnimationFrame)
window.cancelAnimationFrame = function(id) {
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@knod - As far as I can tell, the requestAnimationFrame polyfill-repo from @darius is the most up-to-date one.

If you want sub-millisecond precision, you can try adding the polyfill from @timhall after @darius's one. @timhall also uses the more compatible shorthand notation instead of

var hasPerformance = !!(window.performance &&;

// Add new wrapper for browsers that don't have performance
if (!hasPerformance) {
    // Store reference to existing rAF and initial startTime
    var rAF = window.requestAnimationFrame,
        startTime = +new Date;

    // Override window rAF to include wrapped callback
    window.requestAnimationFrame = function (callback, element) {
        // Wrap the given callback to pass in performance timestamp
        var wrapped = function (timestamp) {
            // Get performance-style timestamp
            var performanceTimestamp = (timestamp < 1e12) 
                ? timestamp 
                : timestamp - startTime;

            return callback(performanceTimestamp);

        // Call original rAF with wrapped callback
        rAF(wrapped, element);

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pyrsmk commented Mar 15, 2014

Currently, I found these :

I can't tell which code is included in another one or not, and which is better... Maybe @kof has the answer ^^

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kof commented Mar 15, 2014

I have created my library after reading all of this shims/polyfills. It includes all improvements and some additional features, like custom frame rate, feature detected raf (required in cases where raf is implemented but just doesn't work), using raf from the iframe, increased performance for multiple parallel animations when using non native version by grouping callback calls and using just one timer ...

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pyrsmk commented Mar 15, 2014

Thanks a lot for your quick answer, now I can move forward in my project with serenity ;)

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Bnaya commented Apr 23, 2014

I think that the approach of using new timer for each callback can cause unexpected behaviour.
Say you have several elements you want to hide,
if each hide() will be on its own timer callback, they might get hidden not on the same frame

You can overcome this using callback queue and single timer.
(its not the full polyfill, just the way of work)

(function (global) {
    var callbacksQueue = [];

    global.setInterval(function () {
        for (var i = 0; i < callbacksQueue.length; i++) {
            if (callbacksQueue[i] !== false) {

        callbacksQueue = [];
    }, 1000 / 60);

    global.requestAnimationFrame = function (callback) {
        return callbacksQueue.push(callback) - 1;

    global.cancelAnimationFrame = function (id) {
        callbacksQueue[id] = false;

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raf (npm) v1.0 was released a few hours ago. It's a CommonJS module (i.e. use it in node or in the browser via browserify) that is loosely based on this gist, but with a polyfill which follows the spec as close as possible.

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If you use JSLint:

/*global window*/
/*jslint maxlen: 100, plusplus: true, unparam: true */

(function () {
    "use strict";

    var lastTime = 0,
        vendors = ['ms', 'moz', 'webkit', 'o'],

    for (x = 0; x < vendors.length && !window.requestAnimationFrame; ++x) {
        window.requestAnimationFrame = window[vendors[x] + 'RequestAnimationFrame'];
        window.cancelAnimationFrame  = window[vendors[x] + 'CancelAnimationFrame']
                                   || window[vendors[x] + 'CancelRequestAnimationFrame'];

    if (!window.requestAnimationFrame) {
        window.requestAnimationFrame = function (callback, element) {
            var currTime = new Date().getTime(),
                timeToCall = Math.max(0, 16 - (currTime - lastTime)),
                id = window.setTimeout(function () {
                    callback(currTime + timeToCall);
                }, timeToCall);
            lastTime = currTime + timeToCall;
            return id;

    if (!window.cancelAnimationFrame) {
        window.cancelAnimationFrame = function (id) {

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What is the element parameter?

window.requestAnimationFrame = function(callback, element) {

It's unused, and according to MDN the function takes just one argument.

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techniq commented Jun 2, 2015

To better match the timestamp passed to the requestAnimationFrame callback (ie., currTime should be adjusted for the navigationStart

var currTime = new Date().getTime() - window.performance.timing.navigationStart;

Without this change my animations on IE9 were not correctly calculating compared to the browsers with native requestAnimationFrame support.

Note: window.performance.timing is only available on IE9+ (which really only applies to IE9 since requestAnimationFrame is already available on IE10+

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techniq commented Jun 4, 2015

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glued commented Jul 4, 2015

ES2015 flavored +


  const vendors = ['ms', 'moz', 'webkit', 'o']
  const af = 'AnimationFrame'
  let lastTime = 0

  if('performance' in window == false)
      window.performance = {}

  if(! = () => new Date().getTime()

  if ('now' in window.performance == false){
    let nowOffset =

    if(performance.timing && performance.timing.navigationStart)
      nowOffset = performance.timing.navigationStart = () => - nowOffset

  for(let x = 0; x < vendors.length && !window.requestAnimationFrame; ++x) {
      const vendor = vendors[x]
      window.requestAnimationFrame  = window[`${vendor}Request${af}`]
      window.cancelAnimationFrame   = window[`${vendor}Cancel${af}`] || window[`${vendor}CancelRequest${af}`]

    window.requestAnimationFrame = callback =>{
        const currTime    =
        const timeToCall  = Math.max(0, 16 - (currTime - lastTime))
        const id          = window.setTimeout(() => callback(currTime + timeToCall), timeToCall)

        lastTime = currTime + timeToCall
        return id

    window.cancelAnimationFrame = id => clearTimeout(id)


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This was very helpful for me. Thanks! I'm using it in a generic animation library I wrote. I hope this is okay.

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190n commented Jul 23, 2015

@imthenachoman Same issue as you, what's the license for this? I'm planning to use this in a game engine I'm writing.

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190n commented Jul 23, 2015

@imthenachoman It says it's MIT license; you can probably do whatever you want.

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Here's request-frame for anyone looking for a comprehensive solution that should just works on everything.

  • npm / bower request-frame
  • iOS6 fix without user-agent sniffing
  • Normalizes firefox 4 - 10 for cancellation & predictability
  • Polyfill native functions or keep intact via variables (To prevent conflicts with other API usage)
  • IE 5.5+ (tested)
  • AMD support

I believe it's best to use as few requestAnimationFrame instances as possible. I avoided frame rates and delays as they're better utilized outside of the polyfill, (vai the timestamp). Thanks to @darius for the timing tweaks, as well as everyone else on here.

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[20:22:43] bower download

Anyone else getting this:

Error 503 backend read error

backend read error

Guru Mediation:

Details: cache-lcy1125-LCY 1439843293 3968273849

Varnish cache server

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lenville commented Sep 7, 2015

Due to an unconfirmed bug in OldIE(maybe the poor performance), many tasks were delaying running.

There are two intended bad Fibonacci demos.

  1. Check the original one in IE8(or lower version), then you may find that timeToCall is gradually growing bigger and bigger.


    I've made a little change to this code.

    // line 20
    var timeToCall = Math.max(0, 16 - Math.abs(currTime - lastTime));
  2. Check the revision.

    Now everything works very well, like this:

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In this article, David Geary implements a interesting version of polyfill.

What do you think about it?

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I've written a solution that doesn't queue each callback separately but execute all scheduled for next frame simultaneously:

Second (third, fourth...) opinion and eyeball check would do good.

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jlmakes commented Dec 12, 2016

In most situations I use miniraf

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elizad commented Jan 20, 2017

Maybe I'm still missing something but for me the polyfill is not working right now and I am triong to figure out what is missing

Uncaught SyntaxError: Missing initializer in const declaration

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Hai , i am new to angular2. i have a conflict in loading the angular2 webapp in safari browser. Actually where to use this code in the code so that i can get rid of this browser problem. is this also the solution for improper loading of c3 charts in certain browsers like safari and microsoft edge. please help me out and thanks in advance.

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Hi Vennapusaravali,

More suitable for the Angular 4 repo, however if you checkout this JS file and add the script to angular-cli.jsons "scripts": [ ".../path/to/this/file/rAF.js" ] it should load correctly. More info can be found here.

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Hello, can someone help me with a question in my website? I don't know where is the issue list, or who I can ask. My website is not working the parallax.js (

Thanks advice

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Hi guys,

Anyone know the answer to this question: ? Would like to hear a professional opinion.


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smrtrnx commented Jan 19, 2019

I've been reading a lot of the comments but I am kinda bit confused now which code to be implemented.

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jalbam commented Jul 21, 2019


I just adapted Paul Irish's polyfill to work with high resolution timing automatically (when possible) and improved the performance a little bit.

It can work with the following polyfill:

Here it is:

'use strict';

// requestAnimationFrame polyfill by Erik Möller.
// Fixes from Paul Irish, Tino Zijdel, Andrew Mao, Klemen Slavic, Darius Bacon and Joan Alba Maldonado.
// Adapted from which derived from
// Added high resolution timing. This polyfill can be used:
// MIT license
// Gist:
(function() {
	var vendors = ['webkit', 'moz', 'ms', 'o'], vp = null;
	for (var x = 0; x < vendors.length && !window.requestAnimationFrame && !window.cancelAnimationFrame; x++)
		vp = vendors[x];
		window.requestAnimationFrame = window.requestAnimationFrame || window[vp + 'RequestAnimationFrame'];
		window.cancelAnimationFrame = window.cancelAnimationFrame || window[vp + 'CancelAnimationFrame'] || window[vp + 'CancelRequestAnimationFrame'];
	if (/iP(ad|hone|od).*OS 6/.test(window.navigator.userAgent) || !window.requestAnimationFrame || !window.cancelAnimationFrame) //iOS6 is buggy.
		var lastTime = 0;
		window.requestAnimationFrame = function(callback, element)
			var now =;
			var nextTime = Math.max(lastTime + 16, now);
			return setTimeout(function() { callback(lastTime = nextTime); }, nextTime - now);
		window.cancelAnimationFrame = clearTimeout;

You can found it in this gist:

Any comments are welcome. Thank you very much.

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